Automata and Grammars
Code  Completion  Credits  Range  Language 

BIEAAG.21  Z,ZK  5  2P+2C  English 
 Garant předmětu:
 Jan Holub
 Lecturer:
 Jan Holub
 Tutor:
 Štěpán Plachý
 Supervisor:
 Department of Theoretical Computer Science
 Synopsis:

Students are introduced to basic theoretical and implementation principles of the following topics: construction, use and mutual transformations of finite automata, regular expressions and regular grammars, translation finite automata, construction and use of pushdown automata, hierarchy of formal languages, relationships between formal languages and automata. Knowledge acquired through the module is applicable in designs of algorithms for searching in text, data compression, simple parsing and translation, and design of digital circuits.
 Requirements:

Knowledge of basic data structures and computer programming.
 Syllabus of lectures:

1. Motivation to study formal languages. Basic notions (language, alphabet, grammar, automaton), Chomsky hierarchy.
2. Nondeterministic and deterministic finite automata (NFA, DFA), NFA with epsilon transitions.
3. Operations on automata (transformation to NFA without epsilon transitions, to DFA, minimization), intersection, union.
4. Programming implementations of DFA and NFA, circuit implementations.
5. Adding translation, Mealey, Moore, conversions.
6. Operations on regular grammars, conversions to FA.
7. Regular expressions, regular expression conversions, finite automata and regular grammars, Kleene theorem.
8. Principles of use of regular expressions in UNIX (grep, egrep, perl, PHP, ...).
9. Finite automaton as a lexical analyzer, lex/flex generators.
10. Properties of regular languages (pumping lemma, Nerode theorem).
11. Contextfree languages, pushdown automaton.
12. Parsing of contextfree languages (nondeterministic versus deterministic).
13. Contextsensitive and recursively enumerable languages, Turing machine. Classes P, NP, NPC, NPH
 Syllabus of tutorials:

1. Implementation of FA.
2. Examples of formal languages. Intuitive considerations of grammars for given languages. Estimation of the classification of a given language in Chomsky hierarchy.
3. Intuitive creation of finite automata (DFA, NFA, with epsilon transitions) for a given langauage.
4. Transformations and compositions of FA.
5. FA with output function and its implementation.
6. Conversions of grammars to FA and vice versa.
7. Considerations, modifications and transformations of regular expressions.
8. Use of regular expressions for text processing tasks (e.g. sh, grep, sed, perl).
9. Creation and implementation of lexical analyzers.
10. Classification of languages.
11. Examples of contextfree languages, creation of pushdown automata.
12. Examples of deterministic parsing of contextfree languages (e.g. LL, yacc, bison).
13. Examples of contextsensitive and recursively enumerable languages, creation of grammars, creation of Turing machines.
 Study Objective:

The module introduces students to finite automata, regular expressions, grammars, and translation finite automata, with an emphasis on their practical use. Furthermore, the module introduces students to the class of contextfree languages, basic use of pushdown automata, as well as the classification of languages.
 Study materials:

1. Sipser M. : Introduction to the Theory of Computation. Cengage Learning Custom Publishing, 2020. ISBN 9780357670583.
2. Hopcroft J.E., Motwani R., Ullman J. D. : Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation, 3rd Edition. Pearson, 2008. ISBN 9788131720479.
3. Kozen D. C. : Automata and Computability. Springer, 1997. ISBN 9780387949079.
 Note:
 Further information:
 https://courses.fit.cvut.cz/BIEAAG/
 Timetable for winter semester 2023/2024:

06:00–08:0008:00–10:0010:00–12:0012:00–14:0014:00–16:0016:00–18:0018:00–20:0020:00–22:0022:00–24:00
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri  Timetable for summer semester 2023/2024:
 Timetable is not available yet
 The course is a part of the following study plans:

 Bachelor specialization, Computer Engineering, 2021 (compulsory course in the program)
 Bachelor specialization, Information Security, 2021 (compulsory course in the program)
 Bachelor specialization, Software Engineering, 2021 (compulsory course in the program)
 Bachelor specialization, Computer Science, 2021 (compulsory course in the program)
 Bachelor specialization, Computer Networks and Internet, 2021 (compulsory course in the program)
 Bachelor specialization Computer Systems and Virtualization, 2021 (compulsory course in the program)