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Binocular Vision

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Code Completion Credits Range Language
F7PBOBV Z,ZK 7 2P+4C Czech

The course F7PBOBV can be graded only after the course F7PBOSUR2 has been successfully completed.

Garant předmětu:
Přemysl Kučera, Markéta Žáková
Přemysl Kučera, Markéta Žáková
Přemysl Kučera, Ondřej Policar, Markéta Žáková
Department of Natural Sciences

This course builds on courses dealing with refraction of the eye and visual functions. Topics include: theory of binocular vision and conditions of its origin, development of visual functions, disorders of binocular vision, practical examination of binocular vision, heterophoria and fixation disparity, relationship of accommodation and vergence, vergence disorders and visual training.


Credit requirements:

1) Attendance at class, two absences allowed

2) Practical verification of subjective refraction including binocular tests

3) Completion of 10 protocols during the exercises

4) Presentation of one case report

Exam requirements:

1) Written part - verification of the most important knowledge including basic calculations. The condition for admission to the oral part is a 50% success rate in the test.

2) Oral part - the student draws one triplet from a combination of questions known in advance.

Syllabus of lectures:

1) Definition of binocular vision, stages of BV, development of BV, anatomical and physiological conditions

2) Oculomotorics, sensory conditions of BV, Panum space, fusion, stereopsis

3) Examination of motility, cover tests

4) BV disorders - heterotropia, heterophoria, anomalous retinal correspondence

5) Other binocular imbalance conditions - suppression, alternans, amblyopia, aniseikonia

6) Diplopia - monocular, binocular

7) Ocular dominance - directional, sensory

8) Dissociation tests - principle, introduction of tests

9) Detection of heterophoria, fixation disparity

10) Heterophoria correction rules

11) Prism - principle and use, prismatic decentration effect

12) Binocular near vision, relationship between accommodation and vergence

13) Visual training

14) Case studies

Syllabus of tutorials:

1) Practical verification of the skills of distance refraction, refractive and accommodative balancing

2) Participation in a screening and representation event on Sight Day

3) Examination of motility, masking tests, dominance tests

4) Aniseikonia - detection, quantification

5) Maddox distance and near test, Bagolini glasses, von Graefe prism

6) Prism strips, practical work with prisms, counting and graphical methods, decentration

7) Binocular tests - disorders of binocular balance

8) Binocular tests - compensated and uncompensated heterophoria

9) MKH methodology

10) Accommodations and vergence - near point of accommodation, accommodative width, near point of convergence

11) Binocular tests at near

12) Binocular vision testing using a phoropter

13) Making aids and practicing visual training - accommodation and vergence facilitation, „free space“ tests

14) Crediting

Task list:

1) Complete refraction of client (obj. refraction, subj. refraction - visus naturalis, monocular refraction, accommodative balancing, right infinity test, near and intermediate distance correction, determination of eye dominance)

2) Basic screening tests to detect binocular vision anomalies (masking tests, motility tests)

3) Detection of aniseikonia - rectangle (hook) test, detection of the size of aniseikonia - New Away test

4) Basic tests for evaluation of binocular vision anomalies. Anaglyph tests - Schober, Worth, Maddox - distance and near (Thorington card).

5) Basic tests to evaluate binocular vision anomalies (von Graefe prism - far and near - Howell card)

6) Basic tests to evaluate heterophoria (polarization - MKH methodology)

7) Basic tests to evaluate heterophoria (polarization - Mallett test)

8) Fusion Reserves - working with prismatic rails

9) Accommodations and vergence - near point of accommodation, acom. width, near point of convergence, AC/A ratio, anti-correction

10) Prescription of prismatic correction, recommendation of solutions - final protocol

11) Vision training, vergence and accommodation facilitation, fabrication of aids

Study Objective:
Study materials:

[1]SCHEIMAN, M., WICK, B., Clinical Management of Binocular Vision: Heterophoric, Accommodative, and Eye Movement Disorders, ed. 4., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014, 752 s., ISBN: 978-1-45117-525-7.

[2]BENJAMIN, W. J., Borish's Clinical Refraction, ed. 2., Butterworth-Heinemann-Elsevier, 2006, 1694 s., ISBN: 978-0-7506-7524-6.

[3]EVANS, B.J.W., Picwell’s binocular vision anomalies, ed. 5., Elsevier, 2007, 454 s., ISBN: 0-7506-8897-1.

Time-table for winter semester 2023/2024:
Kučera P.
(lecture parallel1
parallel nr.3)

Kladno FBMI
Laboratoř subjektivní refrakce
Kučera P.
(lecture parallel1
parallel nr.2)

Kladno FBMI
Laboratoř subjektivní refrakce
Kučera P.
Žáková M.

(lecture parallel1)
Kladno FBMI
C4, Malý sál
Kučera P.
(lecture parallel1
parallel nr.4)

Kladno FBMI
Laboratoř subjektivní refrakce
Policar O.
(lecture parallel1
parallel nr.1)

Kladno FBMI
Laboratoř subjektivní refrakce
Time-table for summer semester 2023/2024:
Time-table is not available yet
The course is a part of the following study plans:
Data valid to 2024-04-18
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