Solid State Physics
Code  Completion  Credits  Range  Language 

XPE02FPL  ZK  4  2P+2S  English 
 Course guarantor:
 Antonio Cammarata, Martin Žáček
 Lecturer:
 Antonio Cammarata, Martin Žáček
 Tutor:
 Antonio Cammarata, Martin Žáček
 Supervisor:
 Department of Physics
 Synopsis:

The course provides fundamentals of solid state physics at large.
 Requirements:

Lessons and tutorials attendance.
 Syllabus of lectures:

1) Condensed matter, solids, their description; crystals; crystal as periodic lattice.
2) Wave diffraction and the reciprocal lattice. Scattering intensity. Structure factor and Atomic form factor.
3) Phonons; crystal vibrations as harmonic displacements; derivation of the secular equation for the dynamical matrix.
4) Thermal properties derived from phonons.
5) Free Electron: Brief overview of the Schrodinger equation for the free particle and a particle confined by infinite potentials. Fermi energy and Fermi level. Electronic density of states. Heat capacity of the electron gas.
6) Nearly free electron model; origin of the energy gap; magnitude of the energy gap; Bloch functions; KronigPenney model; the Bloch theorem; number of orbitals in a band; metals and insulators.
7) Band gap; equations of motion for the wave vector; holes; effective mass; physical interpretation of the effective mass; effective masses in semiconductors.
8) Fermi surfaces and metals; construction of Fermi surfaces; electron orbits, hole orbits and open orbits; physical origin and calculation of energy bands.
9) Dielectrics and Ferroelectrics; electric field of a permanent dipole; macroscopic electric field; depolarizatino field; local electric field at an atom; Lorentz Field; Field of dipoles inside a cavity.
10) Diamagnetism and paramagnetism; Langevin diamagnetism equation; quantum theory of diamagnetism of mononuclear systems; paramagnetism.
11) Ferromagnetism and Antiferromagnetism; ferromagnetic order; Curie point and the exchange integral; temperature dependence of the saturation magnetization; saturation magnetization at absolute zero; ferrimagnetic order; antiferromagnetic order; ferromagnetic domains.
12) Magnetic resonance; nuclear magnetic resonance; line width; hyperfine splitting; electron paramagnetic resonance.
13) Superconductivity; type I and type II superconductors; destruction of superconductivity by magnetic fields; Meissner effect; heat capacity; energy gap; thermodynamics of the superconducting transition; BCS theory.
14) Noncrystalline solids; diffraction pattern of noncrystalline solids; monoatomic amorphous materials; structure of vitreous silica SiO2; glasses, viscosity and the hopping rate; point defects; lattice vacancies; color centers; F centers; other centers in alkali halides.
 Syllabus of tutorials:

1) Crystal structures; Problem: symmetries; Problem: copper oxide layer.
2) Fraunhofer diffraction and derivation of Bragg's law; Singleslit diffraction; two point sources; two slits with finite width (Young's slits); transmission diffraction grating.
3) Physical meaning of phonon eigendisplacements and eigenfrequencies. Explicit calculation of the phonon eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies for a simple system (e.g. isolated CO2 molecule).
4) Crystal binding and elastic constants. Van der WaalsLondon interactions; ionic crystals, the Madelung Energy; hydrogen bonds; elastic strain.
5) Electrical conductivity and Ohm's law. Experimental electrical resistivity of Metals. Motion in magnetic fields. The Hall effect.
6) Crystal momentum of an electron; Bloch theorem and solution of the central equation; aaproximate solution near a zone boundary.
7) Intrinsic carrier concentration; intrinsic mobility; impurity conductivity; donor and acceptor states; thermal ionization of donors and acceptors; semimetals.
8) Experimental methods in Fermi surface studies; quantization of orbits in a magnetic field; De Haasvan Alphen effect; Extremal orbits.
9) Dielectric constants and poalrizability; structural phase transitions; ferroelectric crystals; displacive transitions; Landau theory of the phase transition for ferroelectrics.
10) Quantum theory of paramagnetism; Hund rules; crystal field splitting; quenching of the orbital angular momentum; spectroscopic splitting factor; Van Vleck temperatureindependent paramagnetism; paramagnetic susceptibility of conduction electrons.
11) Magnons; quantization of spin waves, thermal excitation of magnons; neutron magnetic scattering.
12) Electron paramagnetic resonance; ferromagnetic resonance; antiferromagnetic resonance.
13) Superconductivity; London equation; coherence length; flux quantization in a superconductive ring; single particle tunneling; Josephson superconductor tunneling.
14) Radial distribution function; diffusion.
 Study Objective:

At the end of the course, the students will acquire basic knowledge on solid state physics.
 Study materials:

Charles Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th edition, Wiley IPL, ISBN13: 9788126535187
 Note:
 Further information:
 https://moodle.fel.cvut.cz/courses/XPE02FPL
 Timetable for winter semester 2024/2025:

06:00–08:0008:00–10:0010:00–12:0012:00–14:0014:00–16:0016:00–18:0018:00–20:0020:00–22:0022:00–24:00
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri  Timetable for summer semester 2024/2025:
 Timetable is not available yet
 The course is a part of the following study plans: