Equipment Complex of Nuclear Power Plants 1
- Department of Nuclear Reactors
Lectures are composed as encyclopedic overview of power current electrotechnical facilities using LV, HV and VHV and are focused on their utilization in nuclear power plants including power extraction to electrical network. Theoretical background is supported by examples from work experience along with parameters of currently used facilities used in power engineering with focus on NPPs.
First, the general relations of the electric circuits theory and electromagnetic and electric field theories are recapitulated. Then the overview of electrotechnic materials (electric current conductors, semiconductors, magnetic flux conductors, insulators, dielectrics), their properties, applications. After general introduction, there follow lectures on particular types of electrical machines and devices, their characteristics, equivalent diagrams, phasor diagrams, applications in NPPs.
Finally, electric facilities of NPPs are presented including most applied power extraction schemes and schemes for assuring unit auxiliaries and for common plant operations. Examples of electric schemes of Czech NPPs are given including electric devices parameters.
Lectures are supported by technical visits of university labs (university power plant, high-voltage lab, electric machines lab). In the university power plant, the measurement on power unit model is carried out. This includes examples and evaluations of transients of artificially generated failure states.
- Syllabus of lectures:
1. Basic terms and relations of electrical circuits theory and theories of electromagnetic and electric fields. Maxwell equations.
2. Electrotechnic materials - insulators, dielectrics, their properties and applications, electric resistance testing, dissipation factor, resistor materials
3. Electrotechnic materials - conductors, magnetic flux conductors, semiconductors, superconductors, conductors for specific applications (carbons, copper alloys, contact materials), magnetization characteristics, dissipation reduction in magnetic circuits)
4. Electrical machines - classification, definition of characteristics, characteristics of machines and their loads, warming and its relation to the way of machine load, efficiency, electrodynamic forces
5. Non-rotating electric machines - transformers, classifications, principle, design, hour angle, characteristics, operational states, determination of parameters for equivalent diagram, phase diagrams, limiting and filtration properties
6. Non-rotating electric machines - specialized transformers, suppressors, chocking coils, machines' transformers, their specifics, accuracy, overcurrent number, desired purpose-dependent characteristics
7. Rotating electric machines - synchronous machines, principle, design, winding, cooling, rotors for turboalternators and salient pole alternators, attenuator function, rotor power supply, excitors, equivalent diagram, phase diagram
8. Rotating electric machines - synchronic machines, alternators, particular reactances and their influence on current transient during short-cuts, operational characteristics, static and dynamic stability, synchronizing, swinging, operation to transmission grid, solitary operation, synchronic engines and compensators
9. Rotating electric machines - asynchronous machines, principle, design, winding, start up and the means of starting currents decreasing, torque characteristics, equivalent diagram, cyclic diagram, phase diagram, asynchronous generators, single-phase asynchronous motors
10. Rotating electric machines - DC machines, applications, principle, design, winding, characteristics. Commutator motors, application, principle, design, winding characteristics. Stepper motors, applications, principle, design. Specialized motors, pumps for liquid metals.
11. Electrical facilities - switches for LV, HV and VHV, requirements on switching capabilities for particular switch types, design, placing into electrical diagram, methods of arc extinction
12. Fuse and protective electrical devices - fuses, circuit breakers, power protection, surge protection. Design, purpose, characteristics, and their placing into electrical diagram, selective protection, limiting capabilities, testing
13. NPP electrical equipment - requirements, power extraction scheme, unit auxiliaries' scheme and scheme of power-consumption for all operational and emergency states. Examples of NPP electrical schemes, including electrical equipment parameters.
14. Measurement on the physical model of power unit in university power plant: Alternator synchronizing with hard grid with evaluation of particular synchronization errors consequences. Magnetization impulse during transformer startup and its dependence on switching instant. Course of short circuit current in synchronous alternator. Emergency field weakening of the alternator and dependence of the transient on failure mode and shunt resistant size.
- Syllabus of tutorials:
Laboratory exercise takes place in university lab in the last week of classes. It is focused on measurement on power unit model with examples and evaluation of transients at operational and artificially generated failure states (transformer startup pulses, imprecise synchronizing, synchronous alternator shortcut, alternator field weakening at various failure modes. Calculation of practical values is incorporated into lectures.
- Study Objective:
Knowledge: general overview of electrical power facilities used in NPPs, understanding of their principle, requirements on them in relation to other technologies, redundancy and diversity in assuring auxiliaries power supply in operational and emergency states of the unit to assure safe solution of particular situations
Abilities: orientation in the field, ability to incorporate the obtained knowledge in context with knowledge of other NPPs technologies
- Study materials:
1. Elektrické stroje, skripta ČVUT FEL 2000.
2. Zařízení jaderných elektráren, skripta ČVUT FJFI 1985.
3. Elektrické stroje, skripta ČVUT FEL 2000.
- Further information:
- No time-table has been prepared for this course
- The course is a part of the following study plans:
- BS Jaderné inženýrství C (compulsory course of the specialization)