Radioactive Waste Management
- Department of Nuclear Reactors
The subject is focused on getting the knowledge on the system of radioactive waste and spent fuel management system, from the waste formation to their disposal to repository. Waste management subjects to licensing by Atomic law, what is a determining factor to the possibility of using different ways of waste management, i. e. collecting, sorting, treatment, processing, storage and disposal. Waste management in the Czech Republic and/or abroad is assured by more different technologies. To familiarize with these technologies is also a part of the subject.
- Syllabus of lectures:
1. Formation and characteristics of radioactive waste.
Definition of radioactive waste and its formation. Classification of radioactive waste by the type of radiation, activity, half life and radiotoxicity of the radionuclides concerned. Physical and chemical properties of radioactive waste, thermal power and criticality. Sorting of radioactive waste. IAEA classification. Classification of using the way of management.
2. Radioactive waste management within the life cycle of energetic and institutional waste.
Life cycle of institutional and energetical waste. Front part of the fuel cycle. Nuclear reactors operation. Back part of the fuel cycle. Decommissioning. Institutional waste life cycle. Radiation sources life cycle. Waste management with the respect to the waste life cycle.
3. Predisposal of radioactive waste.
Waste minimization at waste producer . Collecting waste in institutions (hospitals) and in nuclear installations. Sorting radioactive waste. Characterization of waste and its methods. Fragmentation, decontamination, chemical treatment, chemical processing, recycling of radioactive waste.
4. Processing of radioactive waste.
Objectives of waste processing. Liquid waste processing. Example of processing technology. Evaporation, condensation using solidification matrix, solidification. Incineration, dressing, processing of gas waste, sewage. Advanced technologies.
5. Treatment and recycling of radioactive waste. Situating the waste to the environment.
Processing of low- and intermediate level waste. Methods of processing, solidification process. Bituminization, cementation, polymeration, vitrification - application for different types of waste, advantages and disadvantages.
6. Transport of radioactive waste.
Waste packages, properties and characteristics of used waste packages. Testing of waste packages. Waste packages for low- and intermediate level waste. Containers for high level waste and for spent fuel. Transport, storage and disposal containers. Transport of waste, transport of spent fuel, transport within disposal.
7. Spent fuel management.
Wet and dry storage. Reprocessing. Transport. disposal. Storage vs. disposal arguments. Arguments for/against advanced technologies of processing.
8. Storage and disposal of radioactive waste.
Disposal of radioactive waste to subsurface repositories. Relation of the final waste form preparation process to the requirements for disposal and storage. Storage and disposal conditions of safe operation. Storage of liquid and solid waste. Storage of spent fuel, Interim storage, operational experience.
9. Safety issues of radioactive waste management.
Operational safety. Post closure safety. Emergency situations, accidents, emergency planning, Safety repost, safety assessment. Environmental impact assessment (EIA). Relation to licensing.
10. Elimination of radioactive waste using transmutation technologies.
Transmutation technologies as a tool to minimize waste volumes. Methods of reprocessing, transmutation and advanced technologies. Economical issues. Safety issues. Status and level achieved of advanced technologies in the Czech Republic.
11. Decontamination of surfaces and management of waste arisen. Adjustment of accidents, adjustment of old ecological burden.
Decontamination as a mean to remediate a site. Technological procedure and objectives. Relation to legal conditions. Release of waste to environment, clearance levels. Update of former procedure of waste disposal. Decontamination of workplace. Old. Ecological burden. Nuclear tests, impact of former practices. Consequences of mining and processing of materials containing natural radionuclides. Remediation - dispatching the impact of accidents and emergencies. Protection of workers, public and environment. Objectives of monitoring.
12. Decommissioning of nuclear installations and management of waste arisen.
Decommissioning of energetic installations. Decommissioning and closure of repositories. Phases of decommissioning. Responsibility of waste producers. Finances for decommissioning. Nuclear account. Management of low- and intermediate level waste. Management of spent fuel.
13. Legal environment in the process of radioactive waste management, public involvement issues.
Atomic Law and connected regulations of SONS. Radiation protection, nuclear safety, emergency planning. Relevant legislation out of Atomic Law. IAEA and NEA OECD - system of recommendations. Joint Convention. Public attitudes. Ecological groups. Means for public involvement. Means of communication.
- Syllabus of tutorials:
- Study Objective:
Knowledge: detailed knowledge of the system of radioactive waste formation and management. Knowledge of the method of assessment of the risk arising from the waste and spent fuel existence, within the life cycle, and the choice of the waste management way and form.
Capabilities: orientation in the issue, application of knowledge achieved in other fields of the nuclear installations problems. Good orientation in Atomic Law, and in reg. SONS No. 307/2002 Coll. on radiation protection
- Study materials:
IAEA Safety Standards, Classification of radioactive waste, GSG-1, IAEA Veinna 2009
Act No. 18/1997 Coll. on Peaceful Utilisation of Nuclear Energy and Ionising Radiation (the Atomic Act), as amended
Dlouhý Z.: Radioactive waste and spent fuel management, VUT Brno, VUTIUM, IBSN 978-80-214-3629-9, 2009 (in Czech)
- Further information:
- No time-table has been prepared for this course
- The course is a part of the following study plans:
- BS Jaderné inženýrství C (compulsory course of the specialization)