Subjective Refraction II.

The course is not on the list Without time-table
Code Completion Credits Range Language
17PBOSUR2 Z,ZK 6 1P+4C Czech
Grading of the course requires grading of the following courses:
Clinical Refraction (17PBONR)
Subjective Refraction I. (17PBOSUR1)
Department of Natural Sciences

During the lectures, students deepen their theoretical knowledge and practical skills of subjective refraction with the test frames and test sets of glasses. Further tests will follow on binocular balance, practice working with phoropter and other techniques.


80% attendance at lectures, practical exam, completed refractive cards, written and oral examination

Syllabus of lectures:

1.Hypermetropia, myopia, best sphere

2.Astigmatism, Jackson's cross cylinder

3. Dissociation, dissociation tests

4. Tests of binocular (accommodative) balance

5.Ocular dominance, monovision

6.Phoropter - the benefits of working with phoropter

7.Anisometropia, aniseikonia

8.Accommodation, disorders of accommodation

9.Convergence, disorders of convergence

10. Binocular examination of astigmatism

11. Addition, amplitude of accommodation, accommodative reserve, 2 grids test

12. Subjective refraction and contact lenses

13. Complicated refractive states - aphakia, vitreous replacement, corneal ectasia, etc.

14. The case studies.

Syllabus of tutorials:

1. Examination of hyperopia and myopia

2. Examination of astigmatism, Jackson's cross cylinder

3.Dissociation subjective refraction

4.Osterberg, Cowen, Worth, Balken test

5.Anisometropia, aniseikonia

6.Ocular dominance

7.Phoropter and sphero-cylindrical examination

8.Binocular balance by phoropter

9.Binocular examination of astigmatism

10.Addition, accommodative reserve, 2 grids test

11. Phoropter and the examination for near distance

12.Subjective refraction and contact lenses

13. Examination of the complicated refractive conditions

14. Recommendation of correction and corrective aids.

Study Objective:

Course subjective refraction II. is designed to give a comprehensive view of subjective refraction examinations and practical mastery. The goal is to providing theoretical assumptions and practical training of subjective refraction measurement with an emphasis on binocular accommodative tests and mastering techniques for near and intermediate distance.

Study materials:

Benjamin, WJ, Borish's Clinical Refraction, 2.ed, 2006; 1694 p.

Dieze, H., Die Untersuchung optometrische, Thieme 2008, 320 p.

Sandi, D., Harvey, B., Eye Essentials - Assessment and Investigative Techniques, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005, 208 p.

Further information:
No time-table has been prepared for this course
The course is a part of the following study plans:
Data valid to 2020-01-28
For updated information see http://bilakniha.cvut.cz/en/predmet2763306.html