Detection of radiation
Code  Completion  Credits  Range  Language 

17DEZ  Z,ZK  3  2+1  Czech 
 Garant předmětu:
 Lecturer:
 Tutor:
 Supervisor:
 Department of Nuclear Reactors
 Synopsis:

The course provides basic information on detection of ionizing radiation. Summary of basic knowledge of nuclear physics necessary to understand derived from parallel course 02ZJF is the content of the first lecture. The main part of the course contain information on sources of radiation and methods of radiation detection of neutrons. Spectroscopy is lectured similarly: all kinds of ionizing radiation with a special lecture on neutron spectroscopy. Emphasis is given on physical principles of detection and spectroscopy but appropriate detection technique and its setup is provided in an appropriate detail. Last lecture as an introduction to laboratory exercises is devoted to theory of probability and mathematical statistics with emphasis on processing of experimental data because the course on theory of probability and mathematical statistics is no more in CV of nuclear engineering. Basics of writing of scientific article is provided also to make easier writing a laboratory protocol as first student scientific text. Laboratory exercise are rather important part of the course amounting about 2/3 of the time (56 tasks). Students are given a problem with prepared short description and task to measure some quantity(ies) and write a protocol as scientific text (an article). Exercise is carried out in groups of maximum 3 students; protocol is written individually.
 Requirements:
 Syllabus of lectures:

1. Introduction + Basic principles of nuclear physics + Radioactivity
. structure of nuclei, binding energy, models of nucleus, unstable nuclei
. stability of nuclei, radioactive decay law, radioactive decay  types of decay
. decay chains
2. Sources of radiation
. types of ionizing radiation: characterization of the types of radiation
. classification of electromagnetic radiation
. basic notions: activity, intensity, flux, fluence, countrate, dose, sensitivity, resolution, etc.
. sources of ionizing radiation: radionuclides, nuclear reactor, accelerators
3. Interaction of radiation with matter:
. interaction of charged particles with matter, heavy and light charged particles
. interactions of photons with matter
. interactions of neutrons with matter (indicatively)
4. Detectors of ionizing radiation
. principles of detection
. gasfilled detectors: ionizing chambers (compensated and noncompensated), proportional counters, GM counters
. scintillator counters, scintillators, photomultiplying tubes
. semiconducting detectors
. special detectors: TLD, Cerenkov counters, Wilson and bubble chamber, photoemulsion, superconducting counters, spark and corona detectors
5. Spectrometry of ionising radiation
. principles of spectrometry
. preamplifier, amplifier, shaping of pulses, single channel analyser, multichannel analyser
. coincidence and anticoincidence layout, active and passive methods of shielding
. modular systems of spectrometric chains
6. Detection of neutrons
. principles of detection of neutrons
. main types of detectors of neutrons according to the used reaction, detection material, timing and purpose and their characteristics
 gas detectors
 scintillators
 semiconducting detectors
 diamond detectors
 selfpowered detectors
 thermoluminiscence detectors
 solid state track detectors
. dose rate meters, dosimeters for neutrons
. instrumentation of energetic reactor and reactor VR1
7. Spectrometry of neutrons
. methods and experimental equipment
 integral and differential spectrometer
 TOF spectrometer
 Methods based on response from charged particles from detection reactions
 threshold reactions
 neutron diffraction
. unfolding of neutron spectra spectra
. examples of the results
8. Uncertainty and elaboration of experimental data
. uncertainty and error, classification of uncertainties
. accuracy and precision
. Probability theory
 basic definitions
. mathematical statistics
 point and interval estimates
 tests of hypotheses
. Direct and indirect measurement
 multidimensional random quantities
 correlated and noncorrelated quantities
 processing of an indirect measurement, interpretation of the results
 uncertainty of an indirect measurement, propagation of uncertainties
. practical consequences
 rounding
 composition of graphs
 background correction
 Syllabus of tutorials:

1. Task 1: Compton effect
2. Task 2: Determination of a working point (voltage) of a GM detector and its utilization for determination of attenuation parameter of some materials
3. Task 3: Gamma spectrometry: efficiency and energy resolution of different types of detectors and energy calibration of a spectrometric chain and determination of an unknown source of radiation
4. Task 4: Range of alpha particles in the air (semiconducting detectors)
5. Task 5: Detectors of neutrons, basic setup and sensitivity
 Study Objective:

Knowledge: Thorough overview on the methods of detection for all types of radioactive radiation including the necessary topics of nuclear physics and basic principles of statistical elaboration of the results.
Abilities: To provide an overview on the topic, to design detection methods suitable both for research tasks and for practical application of radiation sources.
 Study materials:

1. Knoll, G. F.: Radiation_Detection_and_Measurement, John Wiley&Sons Inc., 2000,
2. Leo, William R., Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments, SpringerVerlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1987
3. Murray, Raymond LeRoy: Nuclear energy : An introduction to the concepts, systems, and applications of nuclear processes, Elsevier Inc., 2009
4. Leo, William R., Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments, SpringerVerlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1987
 Note:
 Further information:
 No timetable has been prepared for this course
 The course is a part of the following study plans:

 BS jaderné inženýrství B (compulsory course of the specialization)
 BS Jaderné inženýrství C (compulsory course of the specialization)