Basics of Nuclear Safety

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Code Completion Credits Range Language
17ZJBE ZK 4 4 Czech
Garant předmětu:
Department of Nuclear Reactors

Introduction: History and evolution of nuclear power plant safety. Classification of events, incidents, accidents, accident of US NPP TMI-2, accident of Chernobyl NPP. Basics of nuclear safety - legislative approach: safety principles of NPP, legislative frame of nuclear power plant safety, international requirements on NPP safety, defense-in-depth, safety culture, classification of NPP states and criteria of acceptance, safety analysis. Severe accidents of NPP with pressurized water reactors - engineering and physical approach: loss of coolant accident (LOCA), anticipated transient without scram (ATWS). Safety systems of modern NPP with pressurized water reactors: VVER, EPR, AP-1000.

The course consists of two parts: first is secured by prof. B. Heřmanský; the second one is secured by a group of external instructors from NRI and SONS coordinated by Z. Kříž (NRI). Instructors belong to notable experts in various fields of nuclear safety who works at least 30 years in the field, some of them have experience from international organizations- IAEA, NEA.



Syllabus of lectures:

1. Introductory lecture

1 lecture

Issue of severe accidents with fuel meltdown. ALARA principle and issue of linearization of the radiation effects. Relationship of risks and costs in assuring safety. Evolution of safety philosophy.

2. Accident classification

1 lecture

Classification of incidents and accidents according to engineering and physical aspects. INES - International Nuclear Event Scale: seven levels, methods of incidents and accidents evaluation, examples of particular levels. List of initiating events for NPP accident analysis.

3. Accident of TMI-2 NPP

1 lecture

Babcock-Wilcox reactors, their design and safety systems. A brief outline of the accident evolution and its immediate causes. Analysis of the accident evolution after ten years: reconstructed course of events and actual damage to the reactor.

4. Accident of Chernobyl NPP

1 lecture

RBMK reactors, their design and safety systems. The course of the accident and its immediate causes. Corrective safety facilities. Sarcophagus construction and the current status. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Risks of further operation of the NPP with RBMK reactors.

5. Basics of nuclear safety (legislative approach)

2 lectures

Safety principles of nuclear power plants and the legislative framework for NPP safety. Atomic law, decree No. 195, European law and the use of nuclear energy. International requirements on projects of new nuclear power plants: IAEA Safety Standards Series, European Utility Requirements (EUR), WENRA association.

6. NPP defense-in-depth and safety culture

1 lecture

Defence-in-depth principle. Basic physical barriers, five levels of defense-in-depth, Safety culture: definition and nature, universal characteristics of safety culture, requirements on strategic level, safety culture indicators.

7. LOCA and severe accidents

2 lectures

Phenomenological description of LBLOCA, Serious NPP accident with fuel meltdown High- and low- pressure sequence of serious accident with fuel meltdown.

8. Safety systems of NPP

3 lectures

Safety systems of NPP with VVER reactors (440, 1000, III generation)

engineering and technological part, electrical part, I&C, construction part (containment). Safety systems of NPP with VVER of the III. generation EPR, AP-1000).

9. Nuclear safeguards

1 lecture

role of government, requirements on surveillance, main areas of evaluation activities, inspections, requirements, decisions, IAEA recommendations.

10. Approval process for nuclear facilities

1 lecture

Main stages of approval process

11. Probabilistic safety assessment (J. Dušek)

1 lecture

Deterministic/probabilistic assessment, PSA method

12. Nuclear fuel safty

1 lecture

Nuclear fuel requirements, acceptance criteria and their verification, higher enrichment and higher burn-up impact

13. Research for safety

1 lecture

National and international research programs, safety research need, research topics, experiences and benefits for Czech nuclear programme

14. Personel in nuclear facilities

1 lecture

Research and experience with NPP personnel, requirements on personnel, selected personnel, qualification verification of personnel - licenses

15. Principles for ensuring safety

2 lectures

Basic principles for ensuring the fuel and core safety, their practical applications, requirements on material, construction, degradation mechanisms and reducing of their impact

16. Radioactive wastes

1 lecture

17.Utilizing of operational experience

2 lectures

national and international experience exchange systems (IRS, WANO), practical example of NPP event analysis

Syllabus of tutorials:


Study Objective:

Knowledge: Orientation in classification and evolution of events, incidents and accidents of NPP. Detailed knowledge of causes, evolution and consequences of the two largest NPP accidents (TMI, Chernobyl). Knowledge of nuclear safety basics. Overview of NPP safety systems and their resistance against potential incidents and accidents.

Abilities: Orientation in given issue, understanding of serious accident importance for nuclear power global safety. Overview of issues in assuring safety of gen. II (current NPPs) and gen. III (new nuclear source) NPPs.

Study materials:

Key references:

Heřmanský B.: „Bezpečnost jaderných elektráren I., II., III., IV.“ Učební texty, 2009

Recommended references:

„Basic Safety Principles for NPP“, Rev.1. INSAG-12 report, IAEAVienna 1999

„European Utlities Safety Requirements“, Vol.1, Rev. C, state 5, April 2001

„Accident Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants“, IAEA, Vienna, December 2002

Pernica R.: „Stav vývoje a přehled metod pro vyhodnocení neurčitosti“ Výzkumná zpráva ÚJV-11798 T, říjen 2002

Further information:
No time-table has been prepared for this course
The course is a part of the following study plans:
Data valid to 2024-06-16
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