Basic to Solid State Physics
Code  Completion  Credits  Range 

11ZFP  ZK  3 
 Course guarantor:
 Ladislav Kalvoda, Eva Mihóková
 Lecturer:
 Ladislav Kalvoda, Eva Mihóková
 Tutor:
 Ladislav Kalvoda, Eva Mihóková
 Supervisor:
 Department of Solid State Engineering
 Synopsis:

Description of fundamental properties of solids following the regular long distance ordering of atoms in a crystal lattice.
Based on the introduced bonding interaction between atoms in solids, various types of crystals and their properties are
defined. The model of crystalline lattice dynamics in harmonic approximation is described and basic thermal properties
of crystals are derived. The periodic potential of the crystal lattice is introduced and its relation to the following model
describing the energetic state of electrons in solids by means of electron energy bands explained. The special
consequences of band approach to the physical properties of solids are elucidated. The aim of the course is to
systematically introduce and interpret a broad phenomenological basis of physical properties of crystalline solids
 Requirements:
 Syllabus of lectures:

1. Classification of solids: description and explanation of physical nature of bonding forces between atoms in solids.
Introduction and description of other basic terms: crystal lattice, elementary cell, primitive cell, basis of the ele
mentary cell, reciprocal lattice, Brillouin zones.
2. Description and explanation of the nature of the main types of bonds: ionic, covalent, metallic, hydrogen, vander
Waals.
3. Vibrations of atomic lattice and their description in harmonic approximation. Explanation of basic vibration modes
observed on 1D model of linear crystal lattice formed by identical atoms.
4. Other properties of lattice dynamics in harmonic approximation. New phenomena that appear when the linear crystal
lattice contains a primitive base consisting of two different atoms. Acoustic and optical modes of waves.
5. From normal modes to phonons. Explanation of the principle of quantization of lattice vibrations.
6. Macroscopic thermal properties of solids and their microscopic nature. Specific heat of crystalline lattice: Planck
distribution law, introduction and significance of state density function (Debye model, Einstein model).
7. Beyond harmonic approximation  anharmonic interaction in crystal: theoretical description of thermal expansion
and thermal conductivity, thermal resistance of phonon gas, what are „umklapp“ processes and their importance
8. Electron properties of metals: introduction and interpretation of Fermi gas model of free electrons, Drude model,
infinite potential well, FermiDirack statistics, Fermi energy, Sommerfeld model, behavior. of 3D free electron gas.
9. Specific heat of electron gas. Electrical conductivity and Ohm's law. Movement of electrons in electric and magnetic
fields. Thermal conductivity of metals.
10. Electron band structure of solids. Schrödinger equation with periodic potential, Bloch theorem. KronigPenny mo
del, strong and weak potential.
11. Wave equation of electron in periodic potential. Solution of the central equation in 1D. KronigPenny model in
reciprocal space. Approximation of empty grid.
12. Semiconductors. Forbidden gap of energies. Direct and indirect semiconductors. Equations of motion of electrons
in the energy band. Holes. Effective mass of electrons and holes in semiconductors. Impurity conductivity: the role
of donors and acceptors, major and minor charge carriers
13. PN junction, electrical properties, curvature of energy bands, charge transport, U / I characteristic
 Syllabus of tutorials:
 Study Objective:
 Study materials:

Key references:
[1] Ch. Kittel : Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th ed., J. Wiley, New York 2012.
[2] A. Aharony, O. EntinWohlman: Introduction to Solid state Physics, World Scientific 2018.
Recommended references:
[3] M. P. Marder: Condensed Matter Physics, J.Wiley, New York 2000.
 Note:
 Timetable for winter semester 2024/2025:

06:00–08:0008:00–10:0010:00–12:0012:00–14:0014:00–16:0016:00–18:0018:00–20:0020:00–22:0022:00–24:00
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri  Timetable for summer semester 2024/2025:
 Timetable is not available yet
 The course is a part of the following study plans:

 Fyzikální inženýrství  Počítačová fyzika (PS)
 Fyzikální inženýrství  Fyzikální inženýrství materiálů (PS)
 Fyzikální inženýrství  Fyzika plazmatu a termojaderné fúze (PS)
 Fyzikální inženýrství  Inženýrství pevných látek (PS)
 Fyzikální inženýrství  Laserová technika a fotonika (PS)
 Kvantové technologie (elective course)
 Vyřazování jaderných zařízení z provozu (elective course)
 Physical Engineering  Computational physics (PS)
 Quantum Technologies (elective course)
 Physical Engineering  Physical Engineering od Materials (PS)
 Physical Engineering  Plasma Physics and Thermonuclear Fusion (PS)