Introduction to electron microscopy

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Miroslav Karlík (guarantor)
Miroslav Karlík (guarantor)
Department of Materials

In this course the students are introduced to the microscopic methods used for the characterization of materials, thin layers or nanoparticles. The introductory part is dedicated to the analogy of light and electron microscopy and to various types of microscopes. An important part of the course is given to the interaction of different types of radiation with matter, mathematical formulations and tools used in microscopy and to the description of particular parts of the microscopes. Introduction to kinematic and dynamic theory of diffraction, types of contrast, and diffraction and imaging techniques are also covered. A particular attention is given to analytical methods and imaging techniques in atomic resolution.

Syllabus of lectures:

1. Historical background, different types of microscopes (SEM, FIB, TEM, STEM)

2. Parts of the microscopes (vacuum system, electron guns, magnetic lenses, imaging and detection of electrons)

3. Interactions of electrons with matter (comparison of electrons, X-rays and neutrons), interaction volume, signals emerging from the bulk and thin foil samples, physical principle of the diffraction on crystals (Laue conditions, Bragg equation, atomic scattering factor, structure factor, shape factor of the crystal, extinction length).

4. Scanning electron microscopy – used signals, detectors.

5. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in SEM, wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, other surface analytical methods: Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

6. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD).

7. Sample preparation methods for TEM (electrolytical polishing, ion polishing, wedge mechanical polishing, cleavage and crushing, replicas, ultramicrotomy).

8. Kinematical and dynamical theory of diffraction, simulation software JEMS.

9. Diffraction methods in TEM - intensity distribution in the diffraction pattern, Kikuchi lines.

10. Imaging techniques in TEM (mass-thickness contrast, diffraction contrast, phase contrast, Z-contrast, electron holography, Lorentz electron microscopy, atomic resolution, in situ observation).

11. Analytical electron microscopy in TEM (electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy).

Syllabus of tutorials:
Study Objective:
Study materials:

Key references:

[1] M. Karlík, Úvod do transmisní elektronové mikroskopie, Česká technika - nakladatelství ČVUT, Praha, 2011.

[2] J.I. Goldstein, D.E. Newbury, J.R. Michael, N.W.M. Ritchie, J.H.J. Scott, D.C. Joy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, Springer, 2018.

[3] D.B. Williams, C. B. Carter, Transmission Electron Microscopy, A Textbook for Materials Science, Springer, 2009.

[4] L. Eckertová (Ed.): Metody analýzy povrchů: Elektronová spektroskopie, Academia, Praha, 1990.

Time-table for winter semester 2021/2022:
Time-table is not available yet
Time-table for summer semester 2021/2022:
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The course is a part of the following study plans:
Data valid to 2022-08-07
For updated information see http://bilakniha.cvut.cz/en/predmet6601406.html