Electron Microscopy

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Code Completion Credits Range Language
14ELM KZ 2 2P+0C Czech
Miroslav Karlík (guarantor)
Miroslav Karlík (guarantor)
Department of Materials


In this course the students are introduced to the microscopic methods used for the characterization of materials, thin layers or nanoparticles. The introductory part is dedicated to the analogy of light and electron microscopy and to various types of microscopes. An important part of the course is given to the interaction of different types of radiation with matter, mathematical formulations and tools used in microscopy and to the description of particular parts of the microscopes. Introduction to kinematic and dynamic theory of diffraction, types of contrast, and diffraction and imaging techniques are also covered. A particular attention is given to analytical methods and imaging techniques in atomic resolution.

Syllabus of lectures:


1) Historical introduction, analogy of light and electron microscopy, types of microscopes : transmission (TEM), scanning transmission (STEM), scanning (SEM).

2) Vacuum system, electron guns, magnetic lenses, visualisation and detection of electrons.

3) Mathenatic formulations and tools used in microscopy (plane and spherical wave, Fourier transform, convolution, transfer function, Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximation)

4) Interaction of radiation with matter (comparison for electrons, X-rays, and neutrons), physical base of the diffraction on crystals (Laue conditions, Bragg equation, shape factor of the crystal, extinction distance).

5) Methods of sample preparation for TEM (electrolytic polishing, ion polishing, mechanical polishing, cleavage and crushing, replicas, ultramicrotomy).

6)Introduction to the dynamic theory of diffraction, JEMS software.

7)Diffraction techniques in TEM, distribution of the intensity in the diffraction pattern, Kikuchi lines.

8) Imaging techniques in TEM (mass-thickness contrast, diffraction contrast, phase contrast, electron holography, Lorentz electron microscopy, Z-contrast, atomic resolution, observation in situ).

9)Analytical electron microscopy in TEM (electron energy loss spectroscopy - EELS, energy disperive X-ray spectroscopy - EDS, energy filtered transmission electron microscopy - EFTEM)

10) Scanning electron microscopy - description of the microscope, used signals.

11) Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in SEM, wave dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, other methods of surface analysis: Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

12) Electron Backscatter Diffraction - EBSD


Transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, electron energy loss spectroscopy, theory of diffraction, atomic resolution imaging.

Syllabus of tutorials:
Study Objective:
Study materials:

Povinná literatura:

[1] Carter, C. B. – Williams, D.B., Transmission Electron Microscopy, Diffraction, Imaging, and Spectrometry, Springer, 2016.

[2] Goldstein, J.I., Newbury, D.E., Michael, J.R., Ritchie, N.W.M., Scott, J.H.J., Joy, D.C., Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, Springer, 2018.

Doporučená literatura:

[3] Fultz, B., Howe, J.M., Transmission Electron Microscopy and Diffractometry of Materials, 3rd ed., Springer, 2008.

Time-table for winter semester 2021/2022:
Time-table is not available yet
Time-table for summer semester 2021/2022:
Time-table is not available yet
The course is a part of the following study plans:
Data valid to 2022-08-07
For updated information see http://bilakniha.cvut.cz/en/predmet6231506.html