Measurement and Control in Biomedicine
- Department of Biomedical Technology
The course deals with the following topics - measurement of electrical and non-electrical quantities using conventional laboratory instruments, industrial A/D converters and digitizing cards such as DAQ, low-cost solutions with MCUs such as Arduino, as well as factors affecting the accuracy and stability of measurements both at the level of the sensors and converters themselves, as well as the correct interpretation of these data and the expression of measurement uncertainty and calibration, Machine vision, with a focus on camera systems and standards, and the basics of image recognition, control will include the fundamentals of automation, design of state and sequential automata, addressing transport delay and design of threshold and proportional controllers, demonstrations on biomedical applications, and new trends in measurement, control and automation using FPGA and real-time gate array technology.
Compulsory attendance with two permitted absences without the need for a make-up. In the case of multiple absences for serious reasons, this will be handled on an individual basis. Students are required to keep a laboratory logbook in which they will record procedures and measured results during the exercise. This diary is an integral part of obtaining credit. Students will always be given a homework assignment at the end of the class to prepare material on the topic for the following class. Students will be questioned (orally or in writing) on the topic at the beginning of the exercise. In case of fundamental ignorance, the student cannot pass the exercise.
There will be 3 interim tests on the material covered during the semester - the focus of each test will be 1) digitization and sensor signal conditioning, 2) calibration, uncertainties, bus and communication protocols, 3) automation and control. These tests will include 1 complex numerical example/execution problem for 20 pts and 2 open-ended questions on the problem for 10 pts. Thus, a total of 120 points can be obtained from the tests with a minimum of 50 points for a grade of E (90 points for a grade of A). Students can register for an oral exam, in which they can gain or even lose +- 15 points. Students can only take the oral exam if they obtain a minimum of 50 points in the test.
- Syllabus of lectures:
1. Introduction to measurement, measurement of electrical and non-electrical quantities, minimum knowledge of the basics of electrical measurements.
2. Industrial data acquisition and acquisition units (data cards, microcontrollers), multiplexed and simultaneous converters, signal wiring methods, floating/grounded systems, ground loops.
3. Measurement uncertainties, correlated quantities and covariance. Analysis of measured data, comparison of different systems for measuring the same quantity using the Bland-Altman method.
4. Signal conduction, voltage, current loops, frequency and PWM transmission, differential signal transmission, signal connection wires.
5. Measurement of non-electrical quantities, resistive (strain gauge), capacitive, inductive, optical and electrochemical sensors, microsensors, lab-on chips.
6. Industrial buses and their topology, Fieldbus, ModBus, CAN, addressing, error control standardized buses RS-232, RS-422, RS-485.
7. Laboratory measurement automation, VISA, GPIB, IVI standards
8. Introduction to automation, history, elements in automation, introduction to feedback control and control loops
9. Feedback controllers and their design, state and hysteresis controllers, design at operational amplifier level, design at microcontroller level
10. Feedback controllers and their design, proportional (P, PI, PID), operational amplifier level design, microcontroller level design
11. PID optimization, application systems, controller tuning methods, stability testing, Fuzzy controllers
12. Machine vision and camera systems
13. Real-time measurement and control systems, embedded systems and use of FPGAs for data processing
14. Measurement risks in clinical practice. Shielding, earthing, leakage currents, isolated systems, electric shock, isolation transformers.
- Syllabus of tutorials:
1. Signal digitization - using NI-DAQ and LabVIEW, sampling and data acquisition settings
2. Frequency analysis of the signal, filtering, creating a data buffer for slow signals
3. Signal digitization - low cost solution using MCU Arduino, export to terminal and interfacing with LabVIEW for further analysis
4. Measurement uncertainties - more complex examples, working with supplied data and statistical evaluation.
5. Calibration and calibration functions - constructing conversion curves - linear, power, spline
6. Implementation of analogue frontend for non-electrical sensor, reference source, amplifier circuits, removal of offset, calibration and preparation of application for measurement
7. Realization of differential analog signal frontend, current loop, frequency transfer. Circuit design for long lines, line loading
8. Network topology communication, addressing, LRC and CRC checksums
9. Communication within FIELDBUS networks with peripherals, MODBUS protocol implementation,
10. Laboratory automation and use of laboratory instruments for data acquisition and automation of measurements, interfacing using VISA/IVI protocol (oscilloscope, digital multimeter, function generator)11.Design of hysteresis (on-off) controller, software and hardware implementation Implementation of threshold controller, sw implementation in LabVIEW, hw implementation on OZ and comparator, calculation of hysteresis bandwidth.
12. PID controller design, system analysis, tuning by Ziegler-Nichols method Introduction of proportional control deviation, implementation of P, PI and PID control algorithm, tuning of system by finding instability point, implementation of slow/normal/fast controllers.
13. PID controller optimization, implementation of control on MCU Arduino
14. Machine vision, real-time processing of camera image data, object detection, camera calibration for dimensional measurements
- Study Objective:
- Study materials:
1.HAASZ, Vladimír a Miloš SEDLÁČEK. Electrical measurements. Vyd. 1. Praha: Česká technika - nakladatelství ČVUT, 2006. 183 s. ISBN 80-01-03375-9.
2.SEDLÁČEK, Miloš a Vladimír HAASZ. Uncertainties in electrical measurements. Vyd. 1. Praha: Vydavatelství ČVUT, 2004. 33 s. ISBN 80-01-02985-9.
3.HAASZ, Vladimír. Advanced distributed measuring systems: exhibits of application. River Publishers, 2012. xii, 245 s. River publishers series of information science and technology. ISBN 978-87-92329-72-1.
5.NORTHROP, Robert B. Introduction to instrumentation and measurements. Third edition. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, . ISBN 9781466596771.
6.PLACKO, Dominique, ed. Fundamentals of Instrumentation and Measurement [online]. London, UK: ISTE, 2007 [cit. 2019-04-30]. DOI: 10.1002/9780470612026. ISBN 9780470612026.
7.FRADEN, Jacob. Handbook of modern sensors: physics, designs, and applications [online]. Fifth edition. Cham: Springer, , 2016 [cit. 2019-04-30]. Dostupné z: <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&AN=1081958>. ISBN 9783319193038.
- Further information:
- No time-table has been prepared for this course
- The course is a part of the following study plans: