Physical Chemistry 2
- Garant předmětu:
- Department of Nuclear Chemistry
Lecture of Physical Chemistry 2 focuses on thermodynamics of solutions, particularly on electolytes. Basics of colloidal chemistry extend the theory of solvents in the end of the lecture.
The lecture follows the course of general chemistry and thermodynamics. Calculations are directed to the solving of practical problems of physical chemistry systems.
- Syllabus of lectures:
1. Introduction to solvent theory: partial molar state functions, chemical potentials, Gibbs - Duhem equation, activity and activity coefficients, colligative properties, diffusion in solutions.
2. Introduction to electrochemistry: electrochemical processes, electrochemistry landmarks, the Faraday`s laws, coulometry, solvation of ions, ion pairs, electrolytic transfer: transference numbers, Hittorf`s method, moving boundary method, influence of solvation and complexation on the transference numbers of cations.
3. Electrolytic conduction: measurement of conductance, molar and equivalent conductance, Kohlrausch law of independent ion migration, classical electrolyte dissociation theory, Ostwald dilution law, conductivity and ion mobility, applications of conductance measurements.
4. Ion interaction theory: theory of solutions of strong electrolytes, ion atmosphere, limiting law of electrolytic conductivity, viscous, electrophoretic and relaxation effects, Debye - Hückel - Onsager equation, Wiener effect, Debye- Falkenhagen effect.
5. Thermodynamics of electrolytes solutions: activity and activity coefficients of ions, mean chemical potential, mean activity and activity coefficients, determination of activity coefficients, ionic strength, Lewis` empirical relation, theory of ion interaction and activity coefficients of ions.
6. Galvanic cells: electric tension and its measurement, dependence of the electric tension on state functions, Nernst equation, electrode potentials (IUPAC conventions, standard electrode potentials), basic types of electrodes and galvanic cells, applications of potentiometric measurements.
7. Potentials on liquid interfaces: phase potential and electrochemical potential, difussion potential, Donnan potential, ion exchange membranes, ion selective electrodes.
8. Kinetics of electrode processes (basics): kinetic theory of electrode potential, electrode reactions, concentration polarization and chemical polarization, overvoltage, decomposition voltage, dependence of current-flow density on the overvoltage.
9. Influence of transport phenomena on the electrode processes: basics of polarography, Ilkovic`s equation and equation of polarographic wave, half-wave electric tension.
10. Classification and description of colloidal and coarse dispersions, their kinetic and optical properties: Brownian motion, diffusion, osmotic pressure, reflection and scattering of light.
11. Properties of phase interfaces and surface phenomena: surface tension, wetting, curved interfaces and fugacity, lyosphere, electric double layer, electrokinetic phenomena.
12. Types of colloidal and coarse dispersions: preparation, properties and stability.
- Syllabus of tutorials:
1. Activity of electrolytes solutions calculation, activity coefficients.
2. Solubility product aplication.
3. Weak and strong electrolytes, pH calculation of acids, bases and salts.
4. pH of buffers and ampholytes.
5. Acidobasic equilibrium, concentration of present species.
6. Constants of complexity, distribution coefficients.
7. Faraday´s laws, electrolyte conductivity, ion solvation.
8. Transference numbers, ion mobility, determination of transference numbers.
9.-10. Relation between ionic strength and molar conductivity.
11. Galvanic cells, electric tension, Nernst equation.
12. Kinetics of electrode processes, polarography.
- Study Objective:
Students learn the theory of solvents and electrochemistry. Aim of the course is to give students also basic knowledge of physical chemistry of colloidal systems.
The acquired competence to solve practical problems of physical chemistry systems is then applied in special lectures of nuclear chemistry.
- Study materials:
1. Koryta J., Dvořák J., Kavan L.: Principles of Electrochemistry, 2nd edition,
Wiley, Chichester, 1993.
2. Shchukin E.D., et al.: Colloid and Surface Chemistry, Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam 2001.
3. Levine, I.N.: Physical Chemistry, 6th edition, McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, USA, 2008.
1. Hamman C.H., Hamnett A., Viestich W.: Electrochemistry, Wiley, Weiheim, 1998.
2. Birdi K.S.: Surface and Colloid Chemistry: Principles and Applications, CRC Press, 2009.
3. Murphy B., Murphy C., Hathaway B.: Physical Chemistry Calculations, Royal Society of Chemistry, 1997.
Media and tools:
- Further information:
- No time-table has been prepared for this course
- The course is a part of the following study plans: