Biology for Optometrists
- Garant předmětu:
- Veronika Vymětalová
- Veronika Vymětalová
- Aneta Buchtelová, Veronika Vymětalová
- Department of Natural Sciences
In the course the student will gain clear knowledge of general and cell biology, through the formation of cells and organelles (endosymbiotic theory) and basic chemical composition of cells (simple inorganic and organic substances, carbohydrates, fats, amino acids, biopolymers - NK and proteins), construction of non-cellular forms ( especially viruses) and cells, both prokaryotic (bacteria) and eukaryotic (plant, animal and fungal cells), they will also get acquainted with cell metabolism (anabolism and catabolism), growth and cell differentiation, division (cell cycle and its regulatory mechanisms) to after extinction by apoptosis and necrosis. They will get acquainted with the basics of microbiology (viral and bacterial diseases of man) and applications in technical and medical fields. He will gain detailed knowledge about the internal structure of the eukaryotic cell, its endomembrane system and semiautonomous organelles and the processes that take place in them. Following in the field of molecular biology, they will get acquainted with the basic processes that are necessary for the implementation of genetic information, the processes of replication, transcription, translation (ie proteosynthesis) and gene expression, the genetic code. In general genetics with basic genetic terminology and processes of passing genetic information from parents to offspring according to Mendel's and Morgan's laws, changing genetic information in the form of mutations and possibilities of repair in the cell. Human genetics (clinical genetics) includes basic examination methods and human genetic diseases (autosomal dominant, recessive, gonosomal dominant, recessive, mitochondrial and others). Following the great development of molecular biology and biochemistry techniques, the student is acquainted with genetic engineering and its methods of genetically modified organisms and their preparation, as well as tissue cultures and biotechnologies. Applied biology in technical and medical fields describes the use of biological structures and mechanisms in modern technology and medicine. The conclusion consists of issues related to the field of animal cells and tissues, their histology and issues of biocompatibility.
1. Participation in laboratory exercises, in case of non-participation, an apology must be submitted and the exercises should be replaced in agreement with the exercise leader.
2. Successful mastery of credit written work, minimum success rate 60%
1. Obtaining credit.
2. The exam consists of a written test and an oral exam. Answers to questions are scored according to difficulty. After correction of the test, an oral examination follows. The overall evaluation of the exam corresponds to the valid classification scale. If the result of any part is graded F, the test result is automatically F.
- Syllabus of lectures:
1. Introduction to the study of biology, history and biological disciplines, the origin of life on Earth, the chemical composition of living organisms.
2. Non-cellular forms - viruses, viroids and prions. Cell forms - prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.
3. Basics of microbiology - bacterial cell structure, metabolism, growth and multiplication, human bacterial diseases, antibacterial factors.
4. Cell biology - eukaryotic cell structure, basic characteristics of individual types of eukaryotic cells, biomembrane structure, cell metabolism - anabolism and catabolism.
5. Cell biology - cell organelles and structures: nucleus, semiautonomous organelles - mitochondria, plastids, membrane systems ER, GA, other organelles, cytoskeleton.
6. Cell biology - cell reproduction, cell cycle, cell division, cell aging, cell death - apoptosis and necrosis.
7. Basics of molecular biology - structure of nucleic acids - DNA, RNA, structure of proteins - proteins, genetic code and genetic information.
8. Transmission of genetic information - replication, transcription, translation, regulation of gene expression, cell totipotency.
9. General genetics - professional genetic terminology, Mendel's and Morgan's laws, human genetics, examination methods and genetic diseases - a basic overview.
10. Changes in genetic information - mutations. Spontaneous and induced. Molecular nature of mutations. Detection of mutations by molecular biology methods. Repair mechanisms.
11. Gene manipulation, genetic engineering, genetically modified cells and organisms. Biotechnology. Cloning and gene transfer. Tissue cultures and laboratory and industrial cell culture.
12. Applied biology in technical and medical fields.
13. Basics of histology of animals, tissues - epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous. Animal tissues and biocompatibility.
14. Conclusion, general overview.
- Syllabus of tutorials:
1. Microscope and its use in biology and medical sciences. Microscopic methods of light and electron microscopy.
2. Preparation of microscopic slides for light and electron microscopy.
3. Basics of working with microorganisms in the biological / microbiological laboratory - cultivation of microorganisms.
4. Prokaryotic cell microscopy.
5. Microscopy of eukaryotic cells.
6. Microscopy of cell organelles - cell nucleus and semi-autonomous organelles.
7. Microscopy of cell organelles - other organelles and cell inclusions.
8. Cell cycle and cell division - mitosis, meiosis, cytokinesis.
9. Cell and environment.
10. Anatomy and organology of plants.
11. Microscopy of animal cells and tissues.
12. Selected tasks from general genetics.
13. Selected tasks from human genetics.
14. Problems in molecular biology.
- Study Objective:
The aim is to gain an overview and knowledge in the fields of general biology, cell biology, basics of microbiology, basics of molecular biology, genetics and genetic engineering, needed for further study. Ability to use clear biological knowledge and microscopic technique in solving the student's final thesis.
- Study materials:
JONES, Mary a Geoff JONES. Cambridge IGCSE biology: coursebook. 3rd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
JOHNSON, Arthur T. Biology for engineers. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2011.
- Time-table for winter semester 2023/2024:
C4, Malý sálroomKL:B-223
Lab. mikroskopických praktik
Lab. mikroskopických praktikroomKL:B-223
Lab. mikroskopických praktik
Wed Thu Fri
- Time-table for summer semester 2023/2024:
- Time-table is not available yet
- The course is a part of the following study plans:
- Optics and Optometry (compulsory course)