Geodesy 1

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Code Completion Credits Range Language
154GED1 Z,ZK 5 2P+3C Czech
Garant předmětu:
Martin Štroner, Rudolf Urban
Rudolf Urban
Jaroslav Braun, Tomáš Jiřikovský, Zdeněk Skořepa, Tomáš Suk
Department of Special Geodesy

Historical development of geodesy, representation of the Earth and reduction of measured quantities.

Basic geodetic instruments (theodolites, distance meters) and aids and their parts. Instrument errors and their elimination. Theoretical basics of measuring horizontal and vertical angles and lengths. Centering of measured quantities. Point fields, geodetic reference systems in the Czech Republic. Basic coordinate calculations.

Introduction to Error Theory and Balancing Calculus.



Syllabus of lectures:

1. General introduction to studies – Teaching rules, basic differences between high school and university, structure of CTU, FSv and field G, current teaching of bachelor's and master's studies. Introduction to geodesy – Measurement units and unit conversions, surveying bodies, legislation, literature, historical development of geodesy, shape and dimensions of the Earth, reference surfaces, replacement of a sphere with a plane (effect on lengths).

2. Basic components of geodetic instruments and geodetic tools – Simple measuring tools (plumb, spirit level, Vernier), Theodolite and its components (tripod, telescope, standards, readout of values, compensator, tripod, optical centerer), other geodetic tools (double pentagon, reflecting prism, measuring needles, stake, stabilization material), Leveling device and aids, GNSS, Laser scanners, Photogrammetric accessories, Gyrotheodolite and compass theodolite, Gravimeter. Basics of error theory – Measurement errors and their division, random errors, standard deviation, marginal deviation.

3. Measurement of angles - Basic terms, division of theodolites, Opto-mechanical theodolites (clamp, pinion), leveling and centering of the theodolite, axis conditions of the theodolite, errors of the theodolite, targeting and types of targets, reading aids, measurement in two positions of the theodolite, measurement of the outline of horizontal directions in groups, horizontal angle measurement in laboratory units, zenith angle measurement in two positions.

4. Measurement of lengths – Definition of length, division of methods, direct measurement of lengths by band and invar, errors and accuracy. Measurement of lengths with electro-optical rangefinders, reduction of lengths. Indirect measurement of lengths: optical rangefinders (double-image rangefinder, auto-reducing rangefinders), linear rangefinder, errors and accuracy.

5. Measuring points – Geodetic points and distribution of point fields, positional point fields (ZPBP, Thickening points, PPBP, stabilization and signaling, numbering of points), height point fields, geodetic reference systems on the territory of the Czech Republic (WGS 84, ETRS, S-JTSK , Gustrberský and Svatoštěpánský system, Bpv, S-Gr95, S-42/83), DATAZ and Geoportál.

6. Reduction of measured quantities – Physical reduction of lengths, zenith angle and refraction, reduction of measured length to the horizontal, reduction of length to the zero horizon, reduction of length to display S – JTSK, calculation of real length from coordinates, calculation of length in JTSK.

7. Coordinate calculations 1 – Basics of coordinate calculations (direction, length), calculation of orientation shift, calculation of coordinates of one point by conversion to rayon, orthogonal method, polar method.

8. Coordinate calculations 2 – Forward intersection from angles, forward intersection from directrix, intersection from lengths.

9. Coordinate calculations 3 – Back-radius and back-intersection (Collins point, Cassini solution).

10. Coordinate calculations 4 – Polygonal programs (division, methodology), bilaterally connected and oriented polygonal program, closed polygonal program, woven polygonal program.

11. Coordinate calculations 5 – Transformation of coordinates in position (transformation coefficients and transformation equations), application of transformation (interlaced polygon order, free and fixed measuring line, Hansen's problem)

12. Coordinate calculations 6 – Centering the outline of horizontal directions (eccentric position, eccentric target).

13. Coordinate calculations 7 – Determination of PBPP points (determination of securing point coordinates, PBPP determination methods, PBPP accuracy)

Syllabus of tutorials:

1. Minute theodolites I

2. Minute theodolites II

3. Second-second digital theodolites I

4. Second digital theodolites II

5. Total station

6. Lengths and coordinates I

7. Lengths II

8. Coordinate II

9. Polygon program

10. Calculations I polygon

11. Calculations II intersection

12. Groma Software

Study Objective:

Get to know the basics of geodesy and cartography in the Czech Republic.

Study materials:

! Ratiborský, J.: Geodézie 10. 2. vyd. Praha: ČVUT v Praze. 2005. 234 s.

! Formanová, P. Kubín, T.: Geodézie 1, 2 (Návody na cvičení). 1. vyd. Praha: ČVUT v Praze. 2009. 136 s.

? Torge, W.: Geodesy. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York, 2001. ISBN 3-11-017072-8

? Procházka, J.: Sylaby přednášek z Geodézie 1. Webové stránky K154. Praha 2016. 133 s.

Further information:
Time-table for winter semester 2024/2025:
Time-table is not available yet
Time-table for summer semester 2024/2025:
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The course is a part of the following study plans:
Data valid to 2024-06-16
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