Tomographical Imaging Systems

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Code Completion Credits Range Language
17ABBTZS Z,ZK 4 2P+2C English
In order to register for the course 17ABBTZS, the student must have successfully completed the course 17ABBKZS in a previous semester.
Garant předmětu:
Department of Biomedical Technology

Ultrasound medical imaging systems (US). Doppler systems. Computed tomography - CT (fundamental principle, system layout and arrangements, fundamental physical principle, development versions, reconstruction fundamental principles). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Specialized - hybride imaging systems. Lectures and especially the laboratory exercises provide students with an overview of the principles of image formation in medicine for tomographical and computed tomography based imaging systems and methods. There are described methods for image data sensing, digitization and subsequent processing and principles of function and properties of sensing image devices in context, which is especially relevant from the interdisciplinary point of view of the whole course and study specialization.

Knowledge, skills and competences:

The student is able to explain the basic physical principle of the given modalities and knows its layout including the principle of image formation.

The student is able to assess, on the basis of standard definition of technical parameters that imaging system meets the physician requirements for selected modality. Such knowledge is a prerequisite to the correct process technology selection and application of the modalities as well as the minimum necessary to ensure the required quality of the resulting image data.


Course requirement:

Physics from the point of view of the interaction of radiation with matter, particle physics, acoustics, waves and optics. There is required prerequisite for registration of the course, i.e. course Conventional medical imaging systems. The theory of systems it is also suitable for the selected topics within the course.

Assessment and exam requirements:

Participation is mandatory on all exercises. Non-participation is possible for serious reasons only (to be substantiated).

At the end of each lesson (exercise in PC lab), the fulfilled assignment must be given to the teacher for the current week.

It is not possible to take the exam without obtaining the credit and enrolling it in the CTU IS KOS.

The obligatory part of the course is participation in the event called Trends in the development of magnetic resonance imaging on 29.11.2019, which will take place in Kladno. See also teaching schedule.

The exam is based on the written test and this one consists of a two variants of questions. The so called MCQ, i.e. ABC answer variant (one answer is correct only) with 1 point, i.e. 0 or 1 point. Marking multiple answers means 0 points, no answer means 0 points, bad answer means zero points. The second variant of answers includes the so called open questions (important questions), i.e. 5 points (0 to 5 points). Correct answer can be assessed from 0 to 5 points based on quality of the answer. The whole test consists of a total of 36 questions, of which 20 MCQ (abc) for 1 point and 16 open questions for 5 points. There is required minimum 50 points and there is available max. 100 points. Assessment of the test according to ECTS table (classification grades) is given in the CTU Study and examination code. The total time reserved for the test is 120 minutes. After the test, this one is corrected and there is possible to improve the whole test result if the test result is at the grade boundaries (typically max. by -2 points).

Syllabus of lectures:

1. US (ultrasound) imaging systems - basic sound field variables, electromechanical analogies. US probes/transducers (design, parameters, properties).

2. US imaging systems - general structure. Linear-array probe and phased-array sector probe. Mechanical and electronic decomposition systems. Spatial resolution. Focusing. Display modes (A, B, C, M, or TM).

3. US Doppler systems (Doppler phenomenon, applications in medicine, general demodulation scheme)

4. US Doppler systems (FFT based demodulation, CW, PW arrangement, parameters, properties)

5. CT (computed tomography) - disadvantages of conventional X-ray diagnostics. Basic principle of CT. System layout. The basic physical principle of CT. CT generation development. HW and SW.

6. CT - helical CT X-ray, multi-slice CT X-ray (MSCT, MDCT), DSCT/DECT. CT number, CT detectors.

7. CT - basic principles of image reconstruction in CT systems (direct back projection, Radon transform, filtered back projection)

8. CT - analytical reconstruction of CT systems (2D Fourier transform, iterative reconstruction)

9. MR (magnetic resonance) - physical base (spin, precession, Larmor frequency). Magnetic field radio frequencies, phase coherence and precession, resonance, RF pulse, MR signal generation, free precession signal (FID)

10. MR - relaxation, relaxation times, or time constants T1, T2, RF pulse, pulse sequence and contrast ratio, SR, SE and IR sequence, weighted image parameters and relation to TE and TR time.

11. MR - coding of the spatial position of the voxel, the gradient field, the meaning of the pulse diagrams (sequences, protocols)

12. MR - the base of the Fourier reconstruction method, the basic components of the MR system.

13. Computed tomography systems in nuclear medicine (SPECT, PET)

14. Hybrid imaging systems (SPECT/CT, PET/CT, MR/PET, molecular imaging), preclinical imaging systems

Syllabus of tutorials:

1. US systems (PC classroom assignment)

2. US systems (laboratory experiments)

3. US Doppler systems (PC classroom assignment)

4. US Doppler systems (laboratory experiments)

5. CT systems - reconstruction algorithms (direct back projection) (PC classroom)

6. CT systems - reconstruction algorithms (filtered back projection) (PC Classroom)

7. CT systems - reconstruction algorithms (iterative method) (PC classroom)

8. CT systems - reconstruction algorithms (2D FT based method) (PC classroom)

9. CT systems - (laboratory experiments with the education PHYWE XR4.0 device)

10. MR systems - the effect of relaxation times on image contrast (Matlab, PC classroom)

11. MR systems - k - space (Matlab, PC classroom)

12. MR systems - the principle of image formation (Matlab, PC classroom)

13. SPECT, PET (Matlab, PC classroom)

14. Hybride imaging systems - principles of image fusion (Matlab, PC classroom)

Study Objective:

The aim of the course is to acquaint students with general fundamentals of imaging process theory, sensing methods, evaluation and processing of image information, image signal properties, principles of image formation, structure and general quantitative assessment of the quality of tomographical and computed tomography based imaging modalities used in medicine and the resulting limitations and risks.

Study materials:


[1] Webb's physics of medical imaging. 2nd ed. Editor M. A. FLOWER. Boca Raton: CRC, c2012. Series in medical physics and biomedical engineering. ISBN 978-0-7503-0573-0. (1st ed. is also available in library)


[2] Questions and Answers in MRI [online]. AD Elster, ELSTER LLC, c2017. Poslední změna 2017 [cit. 2017-09-27]. URL: http://mriquestions.com/index.html

[3] POWSNER, Rachel A., Matthew R. PALMER a Edward R. POWSNER. Essentials of nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation. 3rd ed. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, c2013. ISBN 978-0-470-90550-0. (previous eds. are also available in library)

[4] HRAZDIRA, Ivo a Vojtěch MORNSTEIN. Fundamentals of biophysics and medical technology. 2nd, rev. ed. Brno: Masaryk University, 2012. ISBN 978-80-210-5758-6.

Study tools:

Image Sensing and Digitization - Microscopy Imaging Systems - educational SW MIPS [online]. Jiří Hozman. Last change 18. 10. 2013 [cit. 2017-09-27]. URL: http://webzam.fbmi.cvut.cz/hozman/

Hozman, J., Roubík, K. Tomographical medical imaging systems - CT (English version) https://download.cvut.cz/vyukova-videa-pro-fbmi/ (authorization with CTU username and password is required) . Educational programme. Praha: AVTC ČVUT, 2002.

Further information:
No time-table has been prepared for this course
The course is a part of the following study plans:
Data valid to 2024-06-16
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