Radiological Technique - Radiotherapy

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16RTRTM Z,ZK 4 3P+1C
Irena Koniarová (guarantor)
Irena Koniarová (guarantor)
Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation

Curriculum introduces radiological technical aspects in radiotherapy. Units for external radiotherapy and brachytherapy, treatment planning, quality assurance, imaging in radiotherapy are introduced.


Required prerequisities are16ZDOZ1, 16ZDOZ2, 16DETE, 16URF1, 16URF2.

Syllabus of lectures:

1. Introduction: Oncology, the current status of radiotherapy, history of radiation therapy, basic terminology, principles of radiobiology, radiotherapy aims, ionizing radiation types and energies used in radiotherapy, radiotherapy equipment.

2. Phases of radiation interaction with tissue, damage to cellular structures, repairs, oxygen effect, radiosenstivie and radioresistent phases, dose response, the therapeutic index of radiotherapy, side-effect, OAR, tolerance doses.

3. Fractionation, Whither, Elkinds phenomenon, radiobiology models, (TDF, LQ), radiobiology aspects of brachytherapy, electron beams.

4. RT process: diagnosis, localization, treatment planning, simulation, treatment, monitoring of the patient. The basic components of a linear accelerator and simulator, laser positioning system. Imaging in radiotherapy. GTV, CTV, PTV.

5. Localization, simulation, patient immobilization and setup: orthogonal X-ray images, CT-simulator. BEV, DRR. Immobilization methods. Verifying patient setup (EPID, DRR).

6. Treatment planning: the basic parameters of photon and electron beams, beam modification, field shape, blocks, MLC, bolus, compensators. SSD / SAD techniques, static vs. dynamic treatment.

7. Radiotherapy in oncology, palliative vs curative treatment, tumors, common diagnoses, the basic techniques of radiotherapy, target volume and OAR contouring (ICRU 50, 62).

8. CT simulator: components, sources of ionizing radiation, detectors, imaging system. Linear accelerators, radionuclide sources: components, RF generators, waveguides, portal imaging, monitor units, cooling systems, backup systems.

9. Brachytherapy: used radionuclides afterloading system, applicators, treatment planning, clinical cases, radiation techniques, calibration procedures, dosimetry, QA, radiation protection.

10. Special radiotherapy techniques: hyper-and hypo-fractionation, TBI, stereotactic radiotherapy (Leksell gamma knife, stereotactic collimators, micro-MLC), IMRT, heavy particle therapy, BNCT, ortovoltage radiotherapy.

11. Information about upgrades of software in radiotherapy.

12. QA: physicist´s tasks, control of parameters, test cases, international audits.

13. Radiation protection: protection of staff and patients, personal dosimetry, in vivo dosimetry, monitoring system, legislation.

Syllabus of tutorials:

1. Treatment planning - a practical example: the head and neck, prostate, lung.

2. The prescribed dose, fractionation, dose normalization, ICRU recommendations.

3. Dose distribution, isodoses, DVH.

4. The outputs of the planning system.

5. Manual treatment planning.

Study Objective:


Knowledge about basic principles of radiation oncology, equipment for radiotherapy - historical development and state of art.


Using knowledge for the treatment planning of patients. Doses planning, fractionation methods and doses optimization according to the ICRU recommendations. Treatment planning with external photon beams. Providing quality controls of equipment.

Study materials:

Key references:

[1] Faiz M. Khan, The Physics of Radiation Therapy

Recommended references:

[2]Jacob Van Dyk, The Modern Technology of Radiation Oncology: A Compendium for Medical Physicists and Radiation Oncologists, Steel, Washington

Time-table for winter semester 2020/2021:
Time-table is not available yet
Time-table for summer semester 2020/2021:
Time-table is not available yet
The course is a part of the following study plans:
Data valid to 2021-03-02
For updated information see http://bilakniha.cvut.cz/en/predmet6108506.html