Radio Circuits and Devices
- Department of Radioelectronics
The first part contains a basic but systematical description of fundamental types of analog and digital modulations. A description of passive and active elements with non-distributed and distributed parameters follows from the point of view their usage in radio circuits. Attention is devoted to contemporary structures with distributed parameters, microwave transistors of various types, power unipolar transistors, and vacuum tubes used in transmitters. A description of radio function blocks is a fundamental part of the subject: narrow- and wide-band radio-frequency amplifiers and their noise properties, distributed amplifiers, power amplifiers, oscillators, distributed oscillators, phase noise, crystal oscillators, mixers, double and multiply-balanced mixers, modulators and demodulators and a methodology of their design. The last part contains a description of various types of radio receivers and their auxiliary circuits and also fundamental principles of analysis and optimization of radio-frequency circuits by means of computer-aided design.
- Syllabus of lectures:
1. A detailed description of analog modulations (AM, DSB, and FM), equations in time domain, spectral and energetic properties, stereo in FM, pre-emphasis and de-emphasis.
2. A detailed description of digital modulations (ASK, FSK, and PSK), time domain and basic spectral properties. Constellation diagrams. Other frequently used digital modulations and their properties: GMSK, Pi/4 QPSK, and OFDM. Gray code. Spread spectrum.
3. High-frequency properties of passive elements C, L, and R. Parasitic elements, their frequency properties, ESR, Q, and modeling their frequency dispersion. Defining passive two-ports and three-ports by a system of S-parameters.
4. Resonant circuits with lumped and distributed parameters. Other parameters of radio circuits (attenuators, diplexers, phase shifters, etc.)
5. High-frequency filters with lumped and distributed parameters, SAW and other similar structures. Crystal filters.
6. Low-power active elements of radio circuits and their description. High-frequency BJT, HBT, MOSFET, MESFET, pHEMT, and SiGe transistors. Noise properties of high-frequency transistors.
7. Active high-power elements of radio circuits. High-frequency vacuum tubes (klystron, traveling-wave tube, magnetron), power MOSFET and LDMOSFET.
8. High-frequency narrow- and wide-band amplifiers and their properties. Methods of using active elements in high-frequency amplifiers (differential pairs, cascode, Distributed amplifiers, fundamental principle. Power radio-frequency amplifiers, power optimization, efficiency optimization etc.
9. Noise properties of radio-frequency circuits. Fundamental physical noise sources and their mathematical description. Noises of passive and active elements of radio circuits. Fundamental ways of noise optimization of RF circuits. Methods of the noise modeling of the elements described by S-parameters. Low-noise amplifiers (LNA).
10. Classical Oscillators in Radioelectronics ((Colpitts, Clapp, Hartley, etc.). Voltage-controlled oscillators (VCO), PLL. Crystal oscillators, transient. Fundamental diagrams of distributed oscillators.
11. Fundamental diagrams of mixers. Balanced and double balanced mixers. Mixers with diodes, BJTs, and MOSFETS, and a realization of balanced mixers with these elements. Frequency multipliers. A principle of estimating the mixing products using Volterra sequences.
12. Fundamental modulators and demodulators. Demodulators with diodes and transistors. AM, FM demodulators. Synchronous demodulators. A simple example of the numerical analysis of the demodulator.
13. Fundamental types of receivers (crystal, reflex,super-reactive). Superhets with single and double mixing. A problem of mirror frequencies. Up- and down-converting. Auxiliary circuits of radio receivers (AGC, AFC).
14. Fundamental principles of nonlinear analysis and optimization of radio-frequency circuits. Steady-state algorithms. Methods of an efficient analysis of large-scale circuits.
- Syllabus of tutorials:
The exercises consist of laboratory measurements selected in the way to cover completely topics of the lectures for better understanding of radio circuits and devices. There will be arranged a measurement of radio filters, measurements of amplifiers of various classes, including a power amplifier of a radio transmitter, measurements of oscillators and mixers including a computation of IP1 and IP3, and measurements of various parameters of radio receivers.
1. Basic parameters and characteristics of receivers
2. Filters, measurement of transfer characteristics, LC, SAW, crystal filter
3. A-, B-, and C-class amplifiers
4. Mixer, mixing products, IP1, IP3
5. Digital radio DRM
6. Digital TV DVB-T
8. Measurement on transmitter
9. Cascade synthesis
10. High-frequency properties of passive elements
11. Receivers, mirror frequency, double mixing
13. Amplifier, differential amplifier, selective amplifier
14. Mixers, conversion parameters
- Study Objective:
Presenting knowledge for practical radio circuits design.
- Study materials:
Dobeš, J., Žalud, V.: Moderní radiotechnika. BEN, 2006, 764 str. ISBN 80-7300-132-2.
Vendelin, G.D., Pavio, A.M., Rohde, U.L.: Microwave Circuit Design Using Linear and Nonlinear Techniques.
Wiley-Interscience, 2005, 1058 str. ISBN 0-471-41479-4.
Misra, D.K: Radio-Frequency and Microwave Communication Circuits Analysis and Design . John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
2001, 577 str. ISBN 0-471-41253-8.
Caverly, R.: CMOS RFIC Design Principles. Artech House, 2007, 435 s. ISBN 978-1-59693-132-9.
Sodagar, A.M.: Analysis of Bipolar and CMOS Amlifiers. CRC Press, 2007, 411 str. ISBN 1-4200-4644-6.
Nelson, C. High-Frequency and Microwave Circuit Design. CRC Press, 2008, 162 str. ISBN 978-0-8493-7562-0.
Odyniec, M: RF and Microwave Oscillator Design. Artech House, 2002, 398 str. 1-58053-320-5.
Dobrowolski, J.A., Ostrowski, W.: Computer-Aided Analysis, Modeling, and Design of Microwave Networks The
Wave Approach . Artech House, 1996, 305 str. ISBN 0-89006-669-8.
Wong, T.T.Y.: Fundamentals of Distributed Amplification. Artech House, 1993, 325 str. ISBN 0-89006-645-9.
Sun, Y.: Wireless Communications Circuits and Systems. IEE, 2004, 285 str. ISBN 0-85296-443-9.
Baker, R.J., Li, H.V., Boyce, D.E.: CMOS Design, Layout, and Simulation. IEEE & Wiley-Interscience, 1998, 902
str. ISBN 0-7803-3416-7.
Wamback, P., Sansen, W.: Distortion Analysis of Analog Integrated Circuits. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998, 501
str. ISBN 0-7923-8166-6.
Rudolph, M.: Introduction to Modeling HBTs. Artech House, 2006, 322 str. ISBN 1-58053-144-x.
- Further information:
- No time-table has been prepared for this course
- The course is a part of the following study plans: