Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Physics 1
Code  Completion  Credits  Range  Language 

17ZAF1  KZ  4  3+1  Czech 
 Lecturer:
 Milan Štefánik (guarantor)
 Tutor:
 Milan Štefánik (guarantor)
 Supervisor:
 Department of Nuclear Reactors
 Synopsis:

The lectures start with a description of the microworld structure at the level of electrons, protons and neutrons. A description of radioactivity and nuclear reactions follows subsequently. Great focus is given to neutron interactions with matter. The probability of nuclear reactions is described by introducing of crosssections in dependence on the neutron energy. Fission of heavy atoms is the important process for the operation of nuclear reactors. The students will get familiar with issue of nuclear chain reaction, energy released from fission reaction, and issue of neutron balance. Then the most important reactor types are described including the complete scheme of nuclear power plant with the light water reactor. The analysis of diffusion environments is based on the application of the diffusion equation obtained from Fick's law. Students will be able to determine the neutron flux distribution in various diffusion environments with the point source, planar source, and linear source.
 Requirements:
 Syllabus of lectures:

1. Atom and nuclear physics
2 lectures
Introduction to problems, goals of the lectures, fundamental particles, structure of atom and nucleus, nuclear force, quantities and units, excited states, radioactivity and radioactive decay, nuclear stability, kinetics of radioactive decay, decay series, binding energy, mass defect.
2. Interaction of neutron with matter
2 lectures
Interactions of neutron with nucleus, neutron beam intensity, reaction rate and microscopic crosssection, neutron beam attenuation, neutron flux density, excitation functions  elastic scattering, inelastic scattering, crosssection of radiative capture, crosssection of fission, total crosssection; characteristics of neutron sources.
3. Neutron slowing down
3 lectures
The energy loss in elastic collisions, neutron scattering on hydrogen, neutron lethargy, neutron energy spectrum  Maxwellian spectrum (energy and rate distribution), thermal neutrons, thermal neutron flux, onegroup thermal crosssection; neutron moderation, the macroscopic slowing down power and the moderating ratio.
4. Nuclear fission
3 lectures
Discovery of nuclear fission, fission process  liquid drop model of nucleus; fission reaction  critical energy of fission, fissile and fissionable nuclides; fission crosssection; fission products, neutron production, energy released in fission, spontaneous fission; nuclear chain reaction  multiplication factor, reactivity; neutron balance  infinite and finite system; four factor formula; prompt and delay neutrons; prompt neutron spectrum; fuel production and consumption.
5. Nuclear reactors
1 lecture
Basic terminology, categorization of nuclear reactors, nuclear power plant  1st loop, 2nd loop, and 3rd loop; types of nuclear reactors, fuel cycle  front end, service period, and back end.
6. Fick's law
1 lectures
Neutron diffusion, neutron flux density and neutron current density, Fick's law  introducing of Fick's law, physical interpretation, verification of assumptions; transport crosssection, validity of Fick's law.
7. Diffusion theory
3 lectures
The equation of continuity, diffusion equation  validity of diffusion equation and boundary conditions; mathematical apparatus  Bessel functions, modified Bessel functions; neutron flux distribution in infinite environment; diffusion length, neutron sources in infinite environment  point source, planar source, and linear source, diffusion parameters.
 Syllabus of tutorials:

1. Atom physics and radioactivity
2 excercises
Molar mass calculation, atomic ratio and mass fraction, atomic density calculation, radioactivity and production rate, Qval. of nuclear reaction, binding energy, mass defect.
2. Interaction of neutron with matter
2 excercises
Crosssection calculations (microscopic and macroscopic), reaction rate and neutron flux, attenuation of neutron beam intensity, neutron beam density, kinematics of collision processes, collision parameter, nuclear fission modes.
2. Neutron balance, fuel cycle
1,5 excercises
Neutron balance calculation, multiplication factor, fuel production and consumption, onegroup neutron flux density in nuclear reactor, calculation of multiplication factor and reproduction factor for thermal and fast reactors.
4. Diffusion theory
1,5 excercises
Calculation of neutron flux distribution in diffusion environment, point source, planar source, and linear source, onegroup thermal crosssection, diffusion length and diffusion coefficient, transport mean free path, application of boundary conditions.
 Study Objective:

Knowledge: Students have good knowledge on properties and types of nuclear reactions, issues of crosssections, nuclear fission and neutron balance. They have knowledge on the composition of the atom nucleus, the properties of the diffusion environment and the fissile and fissionable materials.
Abilities: good overview in problems, application of obtained knowledge in other subjects in the field of reactor physics, ability to work with nuclear data, ability to determine the atomic densities of materials that are necessary for all analyzes performed in reactor physics and ability to perform calculation of neutron flux distribution in simple geometries using the diffusion equation.
 Study materials:

Key references:
1. Lamarsh J. R.: Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3rd Ed., Prentice Hall, 2001
2. Frýbort J., Heraltová L., Štefánik M.: Úvod do reaktorové fyziky: teorie a cvičení. Skripta ČVUT v Praze, 2013, ISBN 9788001053225
3. Zeman J.: Reaktorová fyzika 1, skripta ČVUT v Praze, 2003, ISBN 8001019330
Recommended references:
1. Heřmanský, B.: Jaderné reaktory. SNTL, Praha, 1981
2. DOE Fundamentals Handbooks  Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory, Vol. 1 a Vol. 2, 1993, DOEHDBK1019/193
3. Reuss P.: Neutron Physics, EDP Sciences, 2008
 Note:
 Timetable for winter semester 2020/2021:
 Timetable is not available yet
 Timetable for summer semester 2020/2021:
 Timetable is not available yet
 The course is a part of the following study plans:

 BS jaderné inženýrství B (compulsory course of the specialization)
 BS Jaderné inženýrství C (compulsory course of the specialization)