Electron Microscopy

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Code Completion Credits Range
14ELMI Z,ZK 3 2+0
Miroslav Karlík (guarantor), Petr Kopřiva (guarantor)
Miroslav Karlík (guarantor), Petr Kopřiva (guarantor)
Department of Materials

In this course the students are introduced to the microscopic methods used for the characterization of materials, thin layers or nanoparticles. The introductory part is dedicated to the analogy of light and electron microscopy and to various types of microscopes. An important part of the course is given to the interaction of different types of radiation with matter, mathematical formulations and tools used in microscopy and to the description of particular parts of the microscopes. Introduction to kinematic and dynamic theory of diffraction, types of contrast, and diffraction and imaging techniques are also covered. A particular attention is given to analytical methods and imaging techniques in atomic resolution.

Syllabus of lectures:

1) Historical introduction, analogy of light and electron microscopy, types of microscopes : transmission (TEM), scanning transmission (STEM), scanning (SEM).

2) Vacuum system, electron guns, magnetic lenses, visualisation and detection of electrons.

3) Mathenatic formulations and tools used in microscopy (plane and spherical wave, Fourier transform, convolution, transfer function, Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximation)

4) Interaction of radiation with matter (comparison for electrons, X-rays, and neutrons), physical base of the diffraction on crystals (Laue conditions, Bragg equation, shape factor of the crystal, extinction distance).

5) Methods of smple preparation for TEM (electrolytic polishing, ion polishing, mechanical polishing, cleavage and crushing, replicas, ultramicrotomy).

6)Introduction to the dynamic theory of diffraction, JEMS software.

7)Diffraction techniques in TEM, distribution of the intensity in the diffraction pattern, Kikuchi lines.

8) Imaging techniques in TEM (mass-thickness contrast, diffraction contrast, phase contrast, electron holography, Lorentz electron microscopy, Z-contrast, atomic resolution, observation in situ).

9)Analytical electron microscopy in TEM (electron energy loss spectroscopy - EELS, energy disperive X-ray spectroscopy - EDS, energy filtered transmission electron microscopy - EFTEM)

10) Scanning electron microscopy - description of the microscope, used signals.

11) Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in SEM, wave dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, other methods of surface analysis: Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

12) Electron Backscatter Diffraction - EBSD

Syllabus of tutorials:
Study Objective:


Physical principles of modern microscopic and analytic methods used in the characterization of materials, thin layers and nanoparticles. Techniques of imaging of crystals in atomic resolution.


Facilitating the orientation in a complicated branch of electron microscopy and corresponding instrumentation. Knowing the possibilities and limits of the experimental methods.

Study materials:

Povinná literatura:

[1] Karlík, M.: Úvod do transmisní elektronové mikroskopie, Česká technika - nakladatelství ČVUT, Praha, 2011.

[2] Jandoš. F. - Říman, R. - Gemperle, A.: Využití moderních laboratorních metod v metalografii, SNTL, Praha, 1985.

Doporučená literatura:

[3] Eckertová, L. (Ed.): Metody analýzy povrchů: Elektronová spektroskopie, Academia, Praha, 1990.

Time-table for winter semester 2020/2021:
Time-table is not available yet
Time-table for summer semester 2020/2021:
Time-table is not available yet
The course is a part of the following study plans:
Data valid to 2021-01-26
For updated information see http://bilakniha.cvut.cz/en/predmet2803406.html