2C10 Design for Fire and Robustness
- Department of Steel and Timber Structures
The aim of this course is to give students an understanding of the design methods of structures at accidental situations, fire and explosion.
The course is focussed on all design methods involved in fire design: prediction of fire scenario, evaluation of fire load, calculation of gas temperatures in the fire compartment and structural analysis. Special attention is paid to fire modelling when several design models is presented including nominal temperature curves, simple models and advanced models.
Gas temperature in the fire compartment is considered as basis for the structural design. Methods for prediction of temperature of the structural elements are presented and mechanical properties of structural materials (steel, concrete, timber and aluminium structures) are presented. Design models for steel, concrete, steel concrete composite, timber and aluminium structural elements loaded by tension, compression and bending moment are presented. Attention is paid to protection of steel and timber structures to fire, various methods of protection are described.
Smaller part of the course is focussed on explosions. Types of explosions are described together with design models. Basic principles of structural analysis are presented. Design methods are explained with focus to increase robustness of the structure.
The theoretical part is supplemented with practical exercises using simple design models with aim to apply the knowledge in design of simple structural elements. Understanding of basic principles of structural analysis and design of steel, concrete and timber structures is necessary.
Bases of design of steel structures.
- Syllabus of lectures:
1 Introduction to fire safety
1.1 - Fire safety, classification of structures, fire compartments, escape routes (general overview)
1.2 - Natural fire and its relation to design to fire safety
1.3 - Fire tests, Introduction to testing and measurement, equipment of fire test laboratory, examples of tests, test setup
2 Fire load and models of fire
2.1 - Fire load density, characteristic and design load, effect of active fire measures, rate of heat release, fire scenarios
2.2 - Simple models for compartment fires, nominal fire curves, parametric temperature curve
Practical calculation of fire load density for simple compartment, evaluation of temperature curve, comparison of different models, advantages and disadvantages of simple models
2.3 - Advanced fire for compartment fires, zone models, CFD models
Application of software to apply zone models for thermal analysis, overview of CFD analysis
2.4 - Fire load for localised fires, modelling of localised fires
3 Structural analysis at fire
3.1 - Accidental load combination, structural analysis at fire
3.2 - Video from large scale fire test in Cardington, example of analysis of steel structure in Cardington
4 Fire resistance of steel structures
4.1 - Temperature of unprotected steel elements at fire, fire protection of steel structures, temperature of protected steel elements at fire
4.2 - Material properties of steel at high temperatures
4.3 - Resistance of element loaded in tension, compression, bending, lateral torsional stability of beams
4.4 - Design of joints
Practical application: design of simple elements exposed to fire: unprotected beam, protected column
4.5 - Temperature of aluminium structures exposed to fire, Material properties of aluminium alloys exposed to high temperatures
5 Fire resistance of concrete structures
5.1 - Material properties of concrete at high temperatures
5.2 - Resistance of reinforced concrete slabs, beams and columns
Tables, simple methods, advanced methods
Practical application: design of simple elements exposed to fire: concrete beam, concrete column
6 Fire resistance of steel concrete composite structures
6.1 - Fire resistance of composite slab
6.2 - Resistance of composite beams
Tables, simple methods, software AFCB
6.3 - Resistance of composite columns
Tables, simple methods, software AFCC
Practical application: design of simple elements exposed to fire: composite beam, composite column
7 Fire resistance of timber structures
7.1 - Behaviour of timber structures exposed to fire, fire protection of timber structures
7.2 - Design method for timber structures
Method of effective cross-section, method of reduced stiffness and strength
7.3 - Design of joints
Practical application: design of simple elements exposed to fire: timber beam, timber column
8 Loading at and structural analysis at explosion
8.1 - Types of explosion, explosion in enclosed open and space, interaction with buildings, structural analysis at explosion,
8.2 - Mechanical behaviour of material at dynamic load.
8.3 - Damage to structures, protection of structures to explosion, reconstruction
9 Loading at and structural analysis at explosion
9.1 - Types of explosion, explosion in enclosed open and space, interaction with buildings, structural analysis at explosion,
9.2 - Mechanical behaviour of material at dynamic load.
9.3 - Damage to structures, protection of structures to explosion, reconstruction
10 Response to pulse excitations
10.1 - analytical and numerical solutions
10.2 - Energy solution for structural elements
10.3 - Equivalent system SDOF system approach
10.4 - 1-D wave equation , Stress wave propagation in discontinuous solids, Design of advanced material for blast protection
10.5 - Robustness Design for robustness, structural behaviour, structural integrity, ductility
- Syllabus of tutorials:
Fire resistance of steel / composite / timber building
- defining fire scenarios, evaluation of fire parametres, thermal analysis, temperature of structural elements and evaluation of fire resistance according to requirements, design of fire protection when necessary
- various structures can be covered: office buildings, car parks, industrial buildings of various purpose, storage buildings, shopping centres, etc.
- Study Objective:
The course is conceived in order to give students following skills:
- To understand the basic methods in fire engineering.
- To be able to develop possible fire scenarios and to understand various fire models.
- To predict the gas temperature in the fire compartment for the selected fire scenarios, to evaluate the fire load density and other fire parameters necessary for thermal analysis of the fire compartment.
- To be able to predict temperature of unprotected and protected structural elements and to be able to select / design suitable fire protection of those elements.
- To understand the specific problems related to structural analysis at fire. To be able to predict the mechanical load at fire and calculate internal forces of simple structures exposed to fire.
- To understand the effect of high temperature on mechanical properties of steel, concrete, timber and aluminium alloys. To be able to design steel, concrete, steel-concrete composite, timber and aluminium structures exposed to fire.
- To understand the purpose of fire testing, measurements and equipment of fire testing laboratory, large scale testing.
- To understand the models for load by explosion in open and closed space, structural analysis at explosion, structural damages and repair of structures.
- To understand the robustness of structures and to be able to design simple structures to ensure structural integrity.
- Study materials:
Jean-Marc Franssen J.M., Vila Real P., Fire Design of Steel Structures, ECCS, Publication 302, ISBN 978-92-9147-099-0.
Buchanan A. H., Structural Design for Fire Safety, John Wiley and Sons, Chichester 2003.
ASCE Manual, Performance-Based Design of Structural Steel for Fire Conditions, American Society of Civil Engineers, 2009.
Lennon T., Moore D.B., Wang Y.C., Bailey G.G., Designer's Guide to EN 1991-1-2, EN 1992-1-2, EN 1993-1-2 and EN 1994-1-2, Thomas Telford, 2006.
Access Steel website (ww.access-steel.com).
- Further information:
- No time-table has been prepared for this course
- The course is a part of the following study plans:
- Sustainable Constructions under Natural Hazards and Catastrophic Events (compulsory course)