General Chemistry
Code  Completion  Credits  Range 

15OCHE  Z,ZK  6  5+2 
 Lecturer:
 Tutor:
 Supervisor:
 Department of Nuclear Chemistry
 Synopsis:

The most important concepts, quantities and units used in chemistry are introduced in the first part of the course. The following parts are mainly aimed at explanation of general chemical principles that are common for all chemical disciplines. The significance and practical use of these principles are illustrated by examples solved in exercises.
 Requirements:

Chemistry knowledge at secondary school level.
 Syllabus of lectures:

1.Chemistry and its disciplines, a process as energy/mass transfer, chemical reactions, the classification of substances. Elementary structural units of substances and their mass, molar amount of matter, mole, molar quantities, the use in stoichiometric calculations.
2.Chemical nomenclature, chemical formulas. Electronegativity, the connection with chemical properties of elements, oxidation state, the formal charge of an atom.
3.A system's composition, concentrations, concentration calculations. Chemical reactions classification, the work with chemical equations, the use in stoichiometric calculations.
4.The structure of atoms: Quantum and wave  mechanical model, the types of atomic orbitals, arrangement of electron shells, valence electrons, periodical system of elements.
5.The structure of molecules: Chemical bond, its core and parameters. The wave  mechanical concept of bond, molecular orbitals, application on diatomic molecules.
6.Ideal gases and their mixtures, the equation of state, partial pressures and partial volumes, Ostwald's law, applications on gaseous systems calculations.
7.Real gases, Van der Waals equation, critical state, the connection among gaseous, liquid and solid states of matter, chemical bonds in liquids and solids.
8.Chemical thermodynamics, thermodynamic description of the state, internal energy, enthalpy, the first law of thermodynamics, the process as the change of state, the concept of reversible / irreversible process illustrated on the isothermal volume change of an ideal gas. Application of the first law, the heats of chemical reactions and phase transitions, thermochemical calculations.
9.Thermic and statistic concept of, the second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy. The conditions for thermodynamic equilibrium establishment, phase and chemical equilibria, their characterisation and quantitative description.
10.Reversible chemical reaction, chemical equilibria, expressing the thermodynamic activity of reaction components, equilibrium constant of a reaction, GuldbergWaag law (the law of mass action), the use in the calculations of equilibrium composition. Reaction quotient, making the decision on the direction of a reaction run, Le Chatelier's principle, its application, shifting the position of chemical equilibrium.
11.Equilibria in electrolytes' solutions, ion product and autodissociation of water, acids and bases  the concept of Brönsted and Lowry, calculation of H value of the solutions of the strong acids (bases) either without or with the involvement of water autodissociation. Weak acids (bases), the calculations of pH value of the solutions of the weak acids (bases) either without or with the involvement of water autodissociation. The solutions of salts, hydrolysis, pHvalue calculations of the solutions of hydrolysable salts.
12.The mixtures of strong weak acids (bases), the mixtures strong acid + weak acid (strong base + weak base), buffers, pHvalue calculations. Polyprotic acids (bases), pHvalue calculations, equilibria in the solutions of sparingly soluble electrolytes, solubility product, its connection with molar solubility.
13.The rate of chemical reaction, differential rate law, reaction order, rate constant, Arrhenius' equation and activation energy. The integration of a differential rate law, the dependence of reaction mixture composition on the time.
14.The first order reactions and their selected systems, the similarities with the relations describing the kinetics of radioactive decay. Kinetics of selected systems involving more reactants and the reactions of higher order.
11.Equilibria in electrolytes' solutions, ion product and autodissociation of water, acids and bases  the concept of Brönsted and Lowry, calculation of H value of the solutions of the strong acids (bases) either without or with the involvement of water autodissociation. Weak acids (bases), the calculations of pH value of the solutions of the weak acids (bases) either without or with the involvement of water autodissociation. The solutions of salts, hydrolysis, pHvalue calculations of the solutions of hydrolysable salts.
12.The mixtures of strong weak acids (bases), the mixtures strong acid + weak acid (strong base + weak base), buffers, pHvalue calculations. Polyprotic acids (bases), pHvalue calculations, equilibria in the solutions of sparingly soluble electrolytes, solubility product, its connection with molar solubility.
13.The rate of chemical reaction, differential rate law, reaction order, rate constant, Arrhenius' equation and activation energy. The integration of a differential rate law, the dependence of reaction mixture composition on the time.
14.The first order reactions and their selected systems, the similarities with the relations describing the kinetics of radioactive decay. Kinetics of selected systems involving more reactants and the reactions of higher order.
11.Equilibria in electrolytes' solutions, ion product and autodissociation of water, acids and bases  the concept of Brönsted and Lowry, calculation of H value of the solutions of the strong acids (bases) either without or with the involvement of water autodissociation. Weak acids (bases), the calculations of pH value of the solutions of the weak acids (bases) either without or with the involvement of water autodissociation. The solutions of salts, hydrolysis, pHvalue calculations of the solutions of hydrolysable salts.
12.The mixtures of strong weak acids (bases), the mixtures strong acid + weak acid (strong base + weak base), buffers, pHvalue calculations. Polyprotic acids (bases), pHvalue calculations, equilibria in the solutions of sparingly soluble electrolytes, solubility product, its connection with molar solubility.
13.The rate of chemical reaction, differential rate law, reaction order, rate constant, Arrhenius' equation and activation energy. The integration of a differential rate law, the dependence of reaction mixture composition on the time.
14.The first order reactions and their selected systems, the similarities with the relations describing the kinetics of radioactive decay. Kinetics of selected systems involving more reactants and the reactions of higher order.
11.Equilibria in electrolytes' solutions, ion product and autodissociation of water, acids and bases  the concept of Brönsted and Lowry, calculation of H value of the solutions of the strong acids (bases) either without or with the involvement of water autodissociation. Weak acids (bases), the calculations of pH value of the solutions of the weak acids (bases) either without or with the involvement of water autodissociation. The solutions of salts, hydrolysis, pHvalue calculations of the solutions of hydrolysable salts.
12.The mixtures of strong weak acids (bases), the mixtures strong acid + weak acid (strong base + weak base), buffers, pHvalue calculations. Polyprotic acids (bases), pHvalue calculations, equilibria in the solutions of sparingly soluble electrolytes, solubility product, its connection with molar solubility.
13.The rate of chemical reaction, differential rate law, reaction order, rate constant, Arrhenius' equation and activation energy. The integration of a differential rate law, the dependence of reaction mixture composition on the time.
14.The first order reactions and their selected systems, the similarities with the relations describing the kinetics of radioactive decay. Kinetics of selected systems involving more reactants and the reactions of higher order.
11.Equilibria in electrolytes' solutions, ion product and autodissociation of water, acids and bases  the concept of Brönsted and Lowry, calculation of H value of the solutions of the strong acids (bases) either without or with the involvement of water autodissociation. Weak acids (bases), the calculations of pH value of the solutions of the weak acids (bases) either without or with the involvement of water autodissociation. The solutions of salts, hydrolysis, pHvalue calculations of the solutions of hydrolysable salts.
12.The mixtures of strong weak acids (bases), the mixtures strong acid + weak acid (strong base + weak base), buffers, pHvalue calculations. Polyprotic acids (bases), pHvalue calculations, equilibria in the solutions of sparingly soluble electrolytes, solubility product, its connection with molar solubility.
13.The rate of chemical reaction, differential rate law, reaction order, rate constant, Arrhenius' equation and activation energy. The integration of a differential rate law, the dependence of reaction mixture composition on the time.
14.The first order reactions and their selected systems, the similarities with the relations describing the kinetics of radioactive decay. Kinetics of selected systems involving more reactants and the reactions of higher order.
 Syllabus of tutorials:

1.Chemical calculations involving basic quantities (molar mass, molar amount of matter, molar volume).
2.Electronegativity, oxidation number determination.
3.Chemical nomenclature, types of chemical formulas, their development.
4.Concentration quantities, concentration calculations.
5.Chemical equations balancing, the use in stoichiometric calculations, chemical equations combining.
6.Electron configuration of free atoms of elements, periodic system of elements, group trends of chemical properties of elements.
7.Chemical bonds sigma, pi, delta, the development of structural electronic formulas of diatomic molecule using molecular orbital (MO).
8.Gas phase, application of the state equation of ideal gas, mixtures of gases, partial pressure, partial volume, using in calculations.
9.Applications of the first law of thermodynamics, thermochemical laws and calculations.
10.Chemical and phase equilibria, calculation of equilibrium composition of system.
11.Equilibria in the solutions of electrolytes, the pH calculations of: the solutions of strong acids/bases without/with a respect to water autoionization, the solutions of weak acids/bases without/with a respect to water autoionization.
12.The pH calculations of: acids mixtures, bases mixtures, solutions of hydrolysable salts.
13.Solubility product calculations.
14.Fundamentals of chemical kinetics, the use of integrated kinetic equations for calculations.
15.Calculations based on Arrhenius' equation.
 Study Objective:

The subject provides sufficient knowledge of basic general chemical principles for students enrolled in the first grade of Department of Nuclear Chemistry.
Graduates of this course are able to study more effectively in following specialized chemical courses.
 Study materials:

Key references:
1.Chang, R.: Chemistry, ninth edition, McGrawHill, New York, 2007
2.Zumdahl, S.: Chemical Principles, D. C. Heath and Company, Canada, USA,1992
Recommended references:
1.Dickerson, R., Gray, H., Haight, G.: Chemical Principles, 3.vydání, The Benjamin Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., Menlo Park, California, 1979
2.Campbell, J.: Chemical Systems, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 1970
 Note:
 Further information:
 No timetable has been prepared for this course
 The course is a part of the following study plans: