Radiological Physics - Radiotherapy 1
- Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation
Curriculum offers introduction to medical physics in radiotherapy. It covers basics of radiation oncology, biological effects of ionising radiation, treatment planning, units used for treatment, basic techniques of external radiotherapy and brachytherapy, quality assurance.
Required prerequisities are 16ZDOZ12, 16DETE, 16JRF12, 16RBIO.
- Syllabus of lectures:
1. Introduction: Oncology, RT history, basic terminology, basic radiobiology, the aim of RT and its implementation, ionizing radiation and energy range used in RT, a basic overview of technical equipment.
2. Chemical and biological interactions of ionizing radiation and living matter. Direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation. Damage to various structures in the cell. Reparations. The importance of oxygen-oxygen effect.
3. One-time exposure and fractionation schemes. Whiter´s 4R. Elkind´s phenomenon.
4. RT PROCESS: diagnosis, localization, treatment planning, simulation (verification), treatment monitoring.
5. LOCALIZATION, SIMULATION, PATIENT FIXATION AND POSITIONING: The methods of patient positioning- lasers and external signs, radiographic methods for patient positioning, setup verification. Megavoltage imaging, EPID.
6. TREATMENT PLANNING: the basic parameters of photon and electron beams, beam-modifiers, nominal energy, size / shape of radiation fields, shielding blocks, multileaf collimator, bolus, compensator.
7. Radiotherapy in a comprehensive cancer care. Types of tumors, the behavior of cancer.
8. TREATMENT PLANNING: A conventional dose fractionation, dose normalization, ICRU recommendations.
9. CT, RT Simulator: components, a source of ionizing radiation, detection system, machine parameters.
10. LINEAR ACCELERATORS AND COBALT UNITS
11.BRACHYTHERAPY: used radionuclides, afterloading systems, applicators, treatment planning (3D).
12. Radiotherapy SPECIAL TECHNIQUES AND METHODS: hypo-, hyperfractionation, TBI, IMRT.
13. ORTOVOLTAGE RADIOTHERAPY: indications, ortovoltage units, treatment planning, dosimetry.
14. INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN RADIOTHERAPY: data streams, record and verify system, data backup.
15. QUALITY ASSURANCE, QA: roles of medical physicist and technician, the parameters of medical devices,examples of test methods for implementation, frequency of controls, international audits.
16. Radiation protection: protection of staff and patients, personal dosimetry, in vivo dosimetry and legislation.
- Syllabus of tutorials:
1. Basic radiobiology calculations
2. Diagnosis, localization, treatment planning, simulation (verification), exposure monitoring.
3. Localisation -traditional localisation based on orthogonal X-ray. Image, RT simulator, CT, CT (virtual) simulators.
4. Basic radiation technique with fixed-SAD (isocentric), with fixed SSD vs. static. dynamic irradiation.
5. Practical demonstrations of basic techniques of irradiation for localization: head and neck, mamma, prostate, lung.
6. Conventional dose fractionation, dose normalization.
- Study Objective:
Knowledge about position of radiotherapy in the framework of oncology: history, basic terminology, basic radiobiology of ionising radiation in radiotherapy, concept of target volumes, role of CT.
Using redioterapeutických methods in cancer applications. The use of imaging techniques and the planning system. Manual treatment planning.
- Study materials:
 Faiz M. Khan, The Physics of Radiation Therapy
 Jacob Van Dyk, The Modern Technology of Radiation Oncology: A Compendium for Medical Physicists and Radiation Oncologists, Steel, Washington
- Further information:
- No time-table has been prepared for this course
- The course is a part of the following study plans:
- Radiologická fyzika (compulsory course of the specialization)