General Chemistry 2
- Alois Motl (guarantor)
- Petr Distler, Alois Motl (guarantor)
- Department of Nuclear Chemistry
The subject is the continuation of the course General chemistry I. The main attention is paid to general principles governing chemical processes. Using various examples, the fact that the validity of these principles is not restricted only to chemical processes is documented. The significance and practical use of explained principles are illustrated by examples solved in exercises.
Chemistry knowledge at the level of the subject General chemistry I.
- Syllabus of lectures:
1. The scope of chemical thermodynamics, thermodynamic description of the
the state of a system and its changes, standard states, state functions and
their properties, internal energy, enthalpy, the first law of thermodynamics,
introducing of the concept of reversible / irreversible processes illustrated on
the example of the isothermal volume change of an ideal gas.
2. Application of the first law, Lavoisier-Laplace law, Hess law, ther
thermochemistry, the heats of chemical reactions, the heats of phase
transitions, thermochemical calculations.
3. Thermic and statistic concept of the state function entropy, the seco
second law of thermodynamics and its consequences, introducing of the state
function Gibbs energy.
4. The conditions for thermodynamic equilibrium. Important phase equi
equilibria, characterisation and quantitative description.
5. The concept of the reversible (equilibrium) chemical reac
reaction, chemical equilibria, the thermodynamic activity of the component of a
system expressed by concentration quantities. The equilibrium constant of a
reaction, Guldberg-Waag law (the law of mass action) and its use in the
calculations of equilibrium composition of a reaction mixture.
6. Reaction quotient, making the decision on the direction of a reac
reaction run. Le Chatelier's principle (action - reaction principle) and its
application, possibilities to shift the position of chemical equilibrium (to
change the equilibrium composition of a reaction mixture).
7. Equilibria in electrolytes water solutions, the auto-dissociation of w
of water, water ion product, acids and bases - the concept of Brönsted and
Lowry. Conjugated pairs acid-base, pH scale, the calculation of the pH value of
the solutions of the strong acids (bases) either without or with the involvement
of water auto-dissociation.
8. Weak acids (bases), dissociation constant, the equilibrium degree of d
of dissociation, the calculations of pH value of the solutions of the weak acids
(bases) either without or with the involvement of water auto-dissociation.
9. The solutions of salts, hydrolysis, hydrolytic constant, the equi
equilibrium degree of hydrolysis, pH-value calculations of the solutions of
10. The mixtures of strong acids (bases) and weak acids (bases), the mix
mixtures strong acid + weak acid (strong base + weak base), buffers, pH-value
11. Polyprotic acids (bases), pH-value calculations, equilibria in the sol
solutions of sparingly soluble electrolytes, solubility product, its use for the
calculation of molar solubility.
12. The rate of chemical reaction, the differential form of the rate law (ki
(kinetic equation), reaction order, rate constant, Arrhenius' equation,
activation energy, the influence of the temperature on the reaction rate.
13. The integration of a differential rate law, reaction mixture com
composition on the time, first order reactions, selected systems of the first
order reactions, their similarities with the relations describing the kinetics
of radioactive decay.
14. Kinetics of selected systems involving more reactants and the rea
reactions of higher order.
- Syllabus of tutorials:
1.Applications of the first law of thermodynamics, thermochemical laws and calculations.
2.Chemical and phase equilibria, calculation of equilibrium composition of system.
3.Equilibria in the solutions of electrolytes, the pH calculations of: the solutions of strong acids/bases without/with a respect to water auto-ionization, the solutions of weak acids/bases without/with a respect to water auto-ionization.
4.The pH calculations of: acids mixtures, bases mixtures, solutions of hydrolysable salts.
5.Solubility product calculations.
6.Fundamentals of chemical kinetics, the use of integrated kinetic equations for calculations.
7.Calculations based on Arrhenius' equation.
- Study Objective:
The students of non-chemical specializations gain sufficient knowledge in general principles governing chemical processes (reactions).
Graduate of this course is able to decide, whether a process will take place under given condition and what will be its result.
- Study materials:
1.Chang, R.: Chemistry, ninth edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2007
2.Zumdahl, S.: Chemical Principles, D. C. Heath and Company, Canada, USA,1992
1.Dickerson, R., Gray, H., Haight, G.: Chemical Principles, 3.vydání, The Benjamin Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., Menlo Park, California, 1979
2.Campbell, J.: Chemical Systems, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 1970
- Time-table for winter semester 2020/2021:
- Time-table is not available yet
- Time-table for summer semester 2020/2021:
- Time-table is not available yet
- The course is a part of the following study plans:
- BS Matematické inženýrství - Matematické modelování (elective course)
- BS Matematické inženýrství - Matematická fyzika (elective course)
- BS Matematické inženýrství - Aplikované matematicko-stochastické metody (elective course)
- BS Matematická informatika (elective course)
- BS Informatická fyzika (elective course)
- BS Aplikace softwarového inženýrství (elective course)
- BS Aplikovaná informatika (elective course)
- BS jaderné inženýrství B (compulsory course of the specialization, elective course)
- BS Jaderné inženýrství C (compulsory course of the specialization, elective course)
- BS Dozimetrie a aplikace ionizujícího záření (elective course)
- BS Experimentální jaderná a částicová fyzika (compulsory course of the specialization, elective course)
- BS Radiologická technika (elective course)
- BS Inženýrství pevných látek (elective course)
- BS Diagnostika materiálů (elective course)
- BS Fyzika a technika termojaderné fúze (elective course)
- BS Fyzikální elektronika (elective course)
- Bc Laser Technology and Instrumentation (elective course)
- BS Fyzikální technika (elective course)
- BS Jaderná chemie (elective course)