General Chemistry 2

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Code Completion Credits Range
15CH2 Z,ZK 3 2+1
Alois Motl (guarantor)
Petr Distler, Alois Motl (guarantor)
Department of Nuclear Chemistry

The subject is the continuation of the course General chemistry I. The main attention is paid to general principles governing chemical processes. Using various examples, the fact that the validity of these principles is not restricted only to chemical processes is documented. The significance and practical use of explained principles are illustrated by examples solved in exercises.


Chemistry knowledge at the level of the subject General chemistry I.

Syllabus of lectures:

1. The scope of chemical thermodynamics, thermodynamic description of the

the state of a system and its changes, standard states, state functions and

their properties, internal energy, enthalpy, the first law of thermodynamics,

introducing of the concept of reversible / irreversible processes illustrated on

the example of the isothermal volume change of an ideal gas.

2. Application of the first law, Lavoisier-Laplace law, Hess law, ther

thermochemistry, the heats of chemical reactions, the heats of phase

transitions, thermochemical calculations.

3. Thermic and statistic concept of the state function entropy, the seco

second law of thermodynamics and its consequences, introducing of the state

function Gibbs energy.

4. The conditions for thermodynamic equilibrium. Important phase equi

equilibria, characterisation and quantitative description.

5. The concept of the reversible (equilibrium) chemical reac

reaction, chemical equilibria, the thermodynamic activity of the component of a

system expressed by concentration quantities. The equilibrium constant of a

reaction, Guldberg-Waag law (the law of mass action) and its use in the

calculations of equilibrium composition of a reaction mixture.

6. Reaction quotient, making the decision on the direction of a reac

reaction run. Le Chatelier's principle (action - reaction principle) and its

application, possibilities to shift the position of chemical equilibrium (to

change the equilibrium composition of a reaction mixture).

7. Equilibria in electrolytes water solutions, the auto-dissociation of w

of water, water ion product, acids and bases - the concept of Brönsted and

Lowry. Conjugated pairs acid-base, pH scale, the calculation of the pH value of

the solutions of the strong acids (bases) either without or with the involvement

of water auto-dissociation.

8. Weak acids (bases), dissociation constant, the equilibrium degree of d

of dissociation, the calculations of pH value of the solutions of the weak acids

(bases) either without or with the involvement of water auto-dissociation.

9. The solutions of salts, hydrolysis, hydrolytic constant, the equi

equilibrium degree of hydrolysis, pH-value calculations of the solutions of

hydrolysable salts.

10. The mixtures of strong acids (bases) and weak acids (bases), the mix

mixtures strong acid + weak acid (strong base + weak base), buffers, pH-value


11. Polyprotic acids (bases), pH-value calculations, equilibria in the sol

solutions of sparingly soluble electrolytes, solubility product, its use for the

calculation of molar solubility.

12. The rate of chemical reaction, the differential form of the rate law (ki

(kinetic equation), reaction order, rate constant, Arrhenius' equation,

activation energy, the influence of the temperature on the reaction rate.

13. The integration of a differential rate law, reaction mixture com

composition on the time, first order reactions, selected systems of the first

order reactions, their similarities with the relations describing the kinetics

of radioactive decay.

14. Kinetics of selected systems involving more reactants and the rea

reactions of higher order.

Syllabus of tutorials:

1.Applications of the first law of thermodynamics, thermochemical laws and calculations.

2.Chemical and phase equilibria, calculation of equilibrium composition of system.

3.Equilibria in the solutions of electrolytes, the pH calculations of: the solutions of strong acids/bases without/with a respect to water auto-ionization, the solutions of weak acids/bases without/with a respect to water auto-ionization.

4.The pH calculations of: acids mixtures, bases mixtures, solutions of hydrolysable salts.

5.Solubility product calculations.

6.Fundamentals of chemical kinetics, the use of integrated kinetic equations for calculations.

7.Calculations based on Arrhenius' equation.

Study Objective:

The students of non-chemical specializations gain sufficient knowledge in general principles governing chemical processes (reactions).

Graduate of this course is able to decide, whether a process will take place under given condition and what will be its result.

Study materials:

Key references:

1.Chang, R.: Chemistry, ninth edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2007

2.Zumdahl, S.: Chemical Principles, D. C. Heath and Company, Canada, USA,1992

Recommended references:

1.Dickerson, R., Gray, H., Haight, G.: Chemical Principles, 3.vydání, The Benjamin Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., Menlo Park, California, 1979

2.Campbell, J.: Chemical Systems, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 1970

Time-table for winter semester 2020/2021:
Time-table is not available yet
Time-table for summer semester 2020/2021:
Time-table is not available yet
The course is a part of the following study plans:
Data valid to 2020-09-30
For updated information see http://bilakniha.cvut.cz/en/predmet23459105.html