Basics of Nuclear Safety
- Lenka Frýbortová (guarantor), Bedřich Heřmanský
- Department of Nuclear Reactors
Introduction: History and evolution of nuclear power plant safety. Classification of events, incidents, accidents, accident of US NPP TMI-2, accident of Chernobyl NPP. Basics of nuclear safety - legislative approach: safety principles of NPP, legislative frame of nuclear power plant safety, international requirements on NPP safety, defense-in-depth, safety culture, classification of NPP states and criteria of acceptance, safety analysis. Severe accidents of NPP with pressurized water reactors - engineering and physical approach: loss of coolant accident (LOCA), anticipated transient without scram (ATWS). Safety systems of modern NPP with pressurized water reactors: VVER, EPR, AP-1000.
The course consists of two parts: first is secured by prof. B. Heřmanský; the second one is secured by a group of external instructors from NRI and SONS coordinated by Z. Kříž (NRI). Instructors belong to notable experts in various fields of nuclear safety who works at least 30 years in the field, some of them have experience from international organizations- IAEA, NEA.
- Syllabus of lectures:
1. Introductory lecture
Issue of severe accidents with fuel meltdown. ALARA principle and issue of linearization of the radiation effects. Relationship of risks and costs in assuring safety. Evolution of safety philosophy.
2. Accident classification
Classification of incidents and accidents according to engineering and physical aspects. INES - International Nuclear Event Scale: seven levels, methods of incidents and accidents evaluation, examples of particular levels. List of initiating events for NPP accident analysis.
3. Accident of TMI-2 NPP
Babcock-Wilcox reactors, their design and safety systems. A brief outline of the accident evolution and its immediate causes. Analysis of the accident evolution after ten years: reconstructed course of events and actual damage to the reactor.
4. Accident of Chernobyl NPP
RBMK reactors, their design and safety systems. The course of the accident and its immediate causes. Corrective safety facilities. Sarcophagus construction and the current status. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Risks of further operation of the NPP with RBMK reactors.
5. Basics of nuclear safety (legislative approach)
Safety principles of nuclear power plants and the legislative framework for NPP safety. Atomic law, decree No. 195, European law and the use of nuclear energy. International requirements on projects of new nuclear power plants: IAEA Safety Standards Series, European Utility Requirements (EUR), WENRA association.
6. NPP defense-in-depth and safety culture
Defence-in-depth principle. Basic physical barriers, five levels of defense-in-depth, Safety culture: definition and nature, universal characteristics of safety culture, requirements on strategic level, safety culture indicators.
7. LOCA and severe accidents
Phenomenological description of LBLOCA, Serious NPP accident with fuel meltdown High- and low- pressure sequence of serious accident with fuel meltdown.
8. Safety systems of NPP
Safety systems of NPP with VVER reactors (440, 1000, III generation)
engineering and technological part, electrical part, I&C, construction part (containment). Safety systems of NPP with VVER of the III. generation EPR, AP-1000).
9. Nuclear safeguards
role of government, requirements on surveillance, main areas of evaluation activities, inspections, requirements, decisions, IAEA recommendations.
10. Approval process for nuclear facilities
Main stages of approval process
11. Probabilistic safety assessment (J. Dušek)
Deterministic/probabilistic assessment, PSA method
12. Nuclear fuel safty
Nuclear fuel requirements, acceptance criteria and their verification, higher enrichment and higher burn-up impact
13. Research for safety
National and international research programs, safety research need, research topics, experiences and benefits for Czech nuclear programme
14. Personel in nuclear facilities
Research and experience with NPP personnel, requirements on personnel, selected personnel, qualification verification of personnel - licenses
15. Principles for ensuring safety
Basic principles for ensuring the fuel and core safety, their practical applications, requirements on material, construction, degradation mechanisms and reducing of their impact
16. Radioactive wastes
17.Utilizing of operational experience
national and international experience exchange systems (IRS, WANO), practical example of NPP event analysis
- Syllabus of tutorials:
- Study Objective:
Knowledge: Orientation in classification and evolution of events, incidents and accidents of NPP. Detailed knowledge of causes, evolution and consequences of the two largest NPP accidents (TMI, Chernobyl). Knowledge of nuclear safety basics. Overview of NPP safety systems and their resistance against potential incidents and accidents.
Abilities: Orientation in given issue, understanding of serious accident importance for nuclear power global safety. Overview of issues in assuring safety of gen. II (current NPPs) and gen. III (new nuclear source) NPPs.
- Study materials:
Heřmanský B.: „Bezpečnost jaderných elektráren I., II., III., IV.“ Učební texty, 2009
„Basic Safety Principles for NPP“, Rev.1. INSAG-12 report, IAEAVienna 1999
„European Utlities Safety Requirements“, Vol.1, Rev. C, state 5, April 2001
„Accident Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants“, IAEA, Vienna, December 2002
Pernica R.: „Stav vývoje a přehled metod pro vyhodnocení neurčitosti“ Výzkumná zpráva ÚJV-11798 T, říjen 2002
- Time-table for winter semester 2020/2021:
- Time-table is not available yet
- Time-table for summer semester 2020/2021:
- Time-table is not available yet
- The course is a part of the following study plans:
- BS Jaderné inženýrství C (compulsory course of the specialization)