Nuclear Reactors

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Code Completion Credits Range
17JARE ZK 2 2
Tomáš Bílý (guarantor), Bedřich Heřmanský (guarantor)
Department of Nuclear Reactors

Introduction. World power issue. Previous evolution of power reactor. Nuclear fission reactors, fuel assemblies, active core, control systems, safety systems, containment. Classification of reactors into IV generations. Standard types of nuclear power reactors: concept, description, layout, previous evolution, world share, perspectives. Pressurized water reactors (PWR). Western-type PWR (Westinghouse, KWU, Framatom). VVER-type reactors , Temelín nuclear power plant. Boiling water reactors. Heavy water reactors, fast breeder reactors, high-temperature gas cooled reactors. Second nuclear era. reactors of generation III (EPR, AP-1000, VVER 1200). Reactors of generation IV: GIF and INPRO initiatives. Evaluation and selection of proposed systems. Six selected concepts. ICRP scenarios of word evolution, hydrogen power, role of nuclear power in long-term outlook



Syllabus of lectures:

1. Introduction

Scope: 1 lecture

Role of the course within study-program, relationship to other courses, goals of the course. Power issue, short-term approach, mid-term outlook, long-term perspectives. Nuclear power in the world. 1st and 2nd nuclear era. Nuclear power reactor and its parts: fuel assemblies, active core, reactor control systems, nuclear power plant, heat removal system, safety systems, containments.

2. Standard types of nuclear power reactors

Scope: 1 lecture

Evolution of nuclear power reactors - 1st nuclear era. Nuclear power in the world, NPP in operation, NPP under construction, planed and proposed reactors. NPP in permanent shut-down. Nuclear power and a EU. Is nuclear power really in depression?

3. Nuclear reactors of generation II.

Scope: 6 lectures

Pressurized water reactors (PWR)

Previous evolution of pressurized water reactors. Basic concept of PWR. Layout of NPP with PWR reactor: active core and fuel assemblies, reactor vessel, control rod drivers, primary loop, safety systems-mechanical and technological part, Containments of NPP with PWR.

Western type pressurized water reactors

World share. Westinghouse-type pressurized water reactors, containment. Combustion Engineering type PWR. PWR design of ABB+CE company: systém 80+. KWU pressurized water reactors, Convoy project. FRAMATOM pressurized water reactors.

NPP with VVER-type pressurized water reactor

1st phase of VVER reactors evolution. Specialties of VVER reactors evolution. VVER-440 type reactors of the first generation (V-230). VVER-440 type reactors of the second generation (V-213). VVER-440 type reactors of V1 NPP, barbotage condenser system. Containment with ice condenser (NPP Loviisa). Final remarks to VVER-440 unit.

VVER -1000 type reactors

Evolution of NPP with VVER-1000 type reactors. NPP concept and reactor layout: fuel assembly, control assembly, reactor internals, reactor vessel, reactor, primary loop and containment. Evolutionary trends of VVER-type reactors. Comparison of VVER-type and western PWR reactors, differences in active core, primary loop and safety systems.

Other reactors of generation II: BWR,HWR, FBR

Boiling water reactors (BWR): basic concept of BWR, General Electric BWR, Swedish BWR, advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR). Heavy water reactors (HWR): previous evolution of HWR, Canadian HWR, CANDU-950, Czechoslovak heavy water reactor KS 150. Fast breeder reactors (FBR): early evolution, basic concept, fuel assemblies, safety, French fast reactor Super Phenix.

Other reactors of generation II: High temperature reactors HTGR

Basic concept, layout, construction. Fuel: microparticles, hexagonal and spherical fuel assemblies. Active core. Safety of high-temperature reactors. NPP Fort St. Vrain and THTR-300. Modular HTGR concept. Safety of modular HTGR. New focus on HTGR: SA PBMR.

4. Nuclear reactors of generation III

Scope: 3 lectures


Requirements on generation III nuclear power reactors. Requirements of European users on NPP with light-water reactors (EUR): safety, economics, reliability, Pu recycling, plant lifetime extension. Selection of new nuclear source for mid-term outlook: six recommended systems (ABWR, AP-1000, ESBWR, GT-MHR, PBMR, SWR-1000)

European pressurized water reactor (EPR) design

Globalization of NPP producers. EPR design: organization, history and present state. Basic description of EPR, plant layout, containment and core catcher. EP/AP 1000 reactor of Westinghouse company: design evolution, reactor concept, reactor safety and safety functions.

New designs of NPP with VVER type reactors of generation III

Basic description of the designs. JE-91/99, JE VVER-1000 Type V-392 (JE-92), JE VVER-2006 designs. Safety functions and safety systems. Emergency core cooling systems. Heat removal systém via secondary loop. Containment and core catcher.

5. Nuclear reactors of generation IV

Scope: 1 lecture


GIF and INPRO initiatives. Evaluation and selection of proposed systems. Six selected concepts (GFR, LFR, MSR, SFR, SGWR a VHTR). Perspectives for 21st century: ICRP world evolution scenarios, hydrogen power and the role of nuclear power in long-term outlook.

Syllabus of tutorials:


Study Objective:

Knowledge: Survey of world, European, and Czech nuclear power. Orientation in various reactor types - advantages, disadvantages, current status, outlook. Detailed knowledge of pressurized water reactor concept and structure of NPPs Dukovany and Temelin.

Abilities: Orientation in given issues, use of gained knowledge in other courses (Reactor Thermomechanics, Reactor Dynamics, Safety of Nuclear power plants), notion of new nuclear source build issues

Study materials:

Key references:

Heřmanský B.: „Nuclear reactors I. a II.“, ČVUT, Prague 2010 (in Czech)

Recommended references:

Weinberg, A.M., Spiewak, I., Barkenbus, J.N.: „The Second Nuclear Era“.Oak Ridge As. Universities, 1984

Ingemarsson, K.F.: „European Utility Requirement - ten years on“. Nuclear Europe Worldscan, Summer 2002 Edition.

„Generation IV Roadmap Technology Goals for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems“. US DOE NERAC, GIF-019, December 2002

„International Conference on Innovative Technologies for Nuclear Fuel Cycles and Nuclear Power (INPRO)“ 23-26 June 2003, Vienna

Time-table for winter semester 2018/2019:
Time-table is not available yet
Time-table for summer semester 2018/2019:
Time-table is not available yet
The course is a part of the following study plans:
Data valid to 2019-06-18
For updated information see http://bilakniha.cvut.cz/en/predmet11343905.html