Medical Application of Ionizing Radiation

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Code Completion Credits Range
16AIZM Z,ZK 3 2+1
Tereza Hanušová, Petra Osmančíková
Tereza Hanušová, Petra Osmančíková
Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation

The lectures aim at medical physics in applications of ionising radiation in medicine - in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiotherapy.


Required prerequisities are 16ZDOZ12, 16DETE, 16JRF12.

Syllabus of lectures:

1. Introduction, history, classification, radiation sources and their physical properties, contrast material, detectors.

2. X-RAY DIAGNOSTICS. Bremsstrahlung and characteristic radiation sources, technical performance, filtration, half value layer, effective energy, energy spectra, X-ray tube parameters, quality control.

3. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY. Image reconstruction methods, filtered backprojection, data acquisition, Radon tranform, sinogram, Fourier transform, beam-detector geometry, helical CT.

4. IMAGE ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING. Analogue image, film, radiography, fluoroscopy, image digitization, image formats, DSA, image analysis, image storage, imaging methods.

5. NUCLEAR MEDICINE. Radionuclide and radiopharmaceutical production, generators, halftime - physicsl, biological, effective, radionuclide purity, measurements of activity, in vivo vs. in vitro measurements, detectors in NM.

6. SCINTIGRAPHY, PLANAR IMAGING. Scintilation (gamma-) camera, principles, quality assurance.

7. TOMOGRAPHICAL IMAGING IN NM. SPECT, image acquisition and reconstruction, PET - principles, radionuclides, radiopharmacs, spatial resolution, clinical applications.

8. RADIATION ONCOLOGY. History, aims of radiotherapy, target volumes, critical organs, simulator.

9. RADIATION TREATMENT PLANNING. Treatment planning system, field modifiers - (danymic) wedges, blocks, MLC, beam weighting, dose distribution and methods of its verification.

10. QUALITY CONTROL. Clinical dosimetry, absolute dosimetry, phantom measurements, TMR, OAR, OF, WF, BF, in vivo dosimetry, tests periodicity, legislation.

11. SPECIAL RADIATION THERAPY. IMRT - intensity modulated radiotherapy, inverse planning, stereotactic irradiation, Leksell gamma knife, hadron therapy.

12. RADIATION PROTECTION IN HEALH CARE. Relevant quantities, methods of their determination, legislation.

Syllabus of tutorials:

1. Measurement of activity in vivo, in vitro measurements, the detectors in nuclear medicine.

2. Suitable radionuclides, radiopharmaceuticals, tomographic spatial resolution, clinical applications.

3. The target volume, critical body simulator.

4. Planning system, basic principles, input-output plan, the spatial distribution of benefits and its verification.

5. Clinical dosimetry, absolute dose measurements, phantom measurements.

6. Neutron capture therapy, clinical applications.

7. Calculations of benefits patients, radiopharmaceutical dosimetry - the method of calculating benefits.

Study Objective:


A comprehensive overview of application of ionizing radiation in medicine, X-ray diagnostics, computed tomography - CT, PET, SPECT, NM.


Orientation in these methods and their application in specific cases.

Study materials:

Key references:

[1] Jacob Van Dyk, The Modern Technology of Radiation Oncology: A Compendium for Medical Physicists and Radiation Oncologists, 1999

[2] Jerrold T. Bushberg, et al., The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging (2nd Edition) 2001

[3] Faiz M. Khan, The Physics of Radiation Therapy , 1994

Recommended references:

[4] James A. Sorenson, Michael E. Phelps, Physics in Nuclear Medicine, 2002

Time-table for winter semester 2020/2021:
Time-table is not available yet
Time-table for summer semester 2020/2021:
Time-table is not available yet
The course is a part of the following study plans:
Data valid to 2021-03-02
For updated information see http://bilakniha.cvut.cz/en/predmet11287805.html