Control of Nuclear Power Plants
- Department of Nuclear Reactors
Lectures are focused on a problematic of automatic control of reactor and nuclear power plant as an entirety by stationary and non-stationary states according to conditions given by safety and economic requirements on operation of a nuclear power plant.
- Syllabus of lectures:
1. Nuclear power plan as a controlled object. Introduction into control of technological processes in a nuclear power plant according to recommendations of IAEA. Tools for automatic control. Tasks of control system from point of view of the whole power station and its principle individual components. Main regulation circuits of automatic regulation system of a power plant.
2. Introduction into theory of regulation. Continuous and non-continuous regulation. Regulation circuit and its components. Types of regulators. Methods for determination of static and dynamic characteristics of regulated system for analysis of control. Transfers of regulated systems.
3. Stability of regulating circuits. Definition of stability. Conditions for achievement of stability of regulating circuit, characteristic equation. Methods of stability assessment in dependence on setting of parameters of a regulator. Demonstration on real regulation circuit of a nuclear power plant.
4. Regulation programs and regimes. Basic definitions. Used regulation programs and their basic characteristics. Impact of individual regulation programs on limits of technological components and components of a control system. Regulation regimes and their properties from point of view of requirements on operational needs or a nuclear power plant in electricity network.
5. Safety protection of a nuclear power plant. Limitation system of reactor. Requirements on functionality and reliability of both systems according to IAEA. Method of reactor power decreasing or limitation. Initiation of safety protection and limitation system of a reactor, instrumentational and software realization of protection and limitation system.
6. Measurements for purposes of regulation, action components of regulators. Method of measurement of total reactor power, power distribution in reactor, local neutron flux in core, temperatures, pressures, flow, levels in steam generators and tanks and their properties. Action components in regulation circuit of nuclear power plants. Their limits from point of view of safety requirements and requirements on regulation of technological processes.
7. Dynamics of regulating object - reactor, main components of primary and secondary circuits. Dynamic model of reactor for control (cold reactor, hot reactor, coolant temperature). Dynamic models of main connecting pipes, steam generator, volume compensator, Dynamic models of steam system and turbine. Dynamic characteristics for control purposes.
8. Dynamics of nuclear power plant and its regulation characteristics. Scheme of power plant dynamics as a whole. Feedbacks between primary and secondary circuit in steam generator and their use for control. Regulation characteristics of a nuclear power plant.
9. Reactor regulation circuits and their properties. Regulation circuit of integral reactor power, variants and their properties. Stability of reactor power regulation circuit. Principle of regulation of power distribution in reactor and ways of its implementation.
10. Regulation circuits of primary and secondary circuits and their properties. Regulation circuits of pressure in primary circuit, level in volume compensator and steam generators, steam pressure and steam power. Basic properties of these regulation circuits.
11. Analog and digital control technology. Validation of software for control system. Characteristics of analog and digital regulation technology. Production and validation of digital control technology software for safety application
12. Setting and testing of control system of nuclear power plans. Criteria for setting of automatic regulation system of nuclear power plant and individual main regulators. Testing of regulation system during power plant start-up.
13. Use of simulators for control of nuclear power plant. Simulator and their categorization. Use of simulators in design process of regulation circuits and their tests in actual facilities of power plant.
- Syllabus of tutorials:
No tutorials, only representative examples of applications of theory
- Study Objective:
Knowledge; detailed knowledge of function of nuclear power plant automatic control system, way of power plant regulation that is connected into electricity network with guarantee of design and economical operation requirements. Philosophy of control system design, procedures of automatic control system design and its setting in power plant.
Abilities: orientation in automatic control of operation, use gained knowledge in other subjects and in practice.
- Study materials:
Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control. Guidebook. Technical Reports Series No 239. IAEA Vienna 1984
Optimalnoje upravlenie, A. Rosenmann, Moskva 1974 (from English)
Nuclear power plants - Instrumentation and control important to safety - Classification of instrumentation and control functions, IEC 61226, 2009
- Further information:
- No time-table has been prepared for this course
- The course is a part of the following study plans: